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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Intent Features for Rich Natural Language Understanding

Apr 18, 2021
Brian Lester, Sagnik Ray Choudhury, Rashmi Prasad, Srinivas Bangalore

Complex natural language understanding modules in dialog systems have a richer understanding of user utterances, and thus are critical in providing a better user experience. However, these models are often created from scratch, for specific clients and use cases, and require the annotation of large datasets. This encourages the sharing of annotated data across multiple clients. To facilitate this we introduce the idea of intent features: domain and topic agnostic properties of intents that can be learned from the syntactic cues only, and hence can be shared. We introduce a new neural network architecture, the Global-Local model, that shows significant improvement over strong baselines for identifying these features in a deployed, multi-intent natural language understanding module, and, more generally, in a classification setting where a part of an utterance has to be classified utilizing the whole context.


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A Survey of Orthogonal Moments for Image Representation: Theory, Implementation, and Evaluation

Mar 27, 2021
Shuren Qi, Yushu Zhang, Chao Wang, Jiantao Zhou, Xiaochun Cao

Image representation is an important topic in computer vision and pattern recognition. It plays a fundamental role in a range of applications towards understanding visual contents. Moment-based image representation has been reported to be effective in satisfying the core conditions of semantic description due to its beneficial mathematical properties, especially geometric invariance and independence. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the orthogonal moments for image representation, covering recent advances in fast/accurate calculation, robustness/invariance optimization, and definition extension. We also create a software package for a variety of widely-used orthogonal moments and evaluate such methods in a same base. The presented theory analysis, software implementation, and evaluation results can support the community, particularly in developing novel techniques and promoting real-world applications.


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ReLU Neural Networks for Exact Maximum Flow Computation

Feb 12, 2021
Christoph Hertrich, Leon Sering

Understanding the great empirical success of artificial neural networks (NNs) from a theoretical point of view is currently one of the hottest research topics in computer science. In this paper we study the expressive power of NNs with rectified linear units from a combinatorial optimization perspective. In particular, we show that, given a directed graph with $n$ nodes and $m$ arcs, there exists an NN of polynomial size that computes a maximum flow from any possible real-valued arc capacities as input. To prove this, we develop the pseudo-code language Max-Affine Arithmetic Programs (MAAPs) and show equivalence between MAAPs and NNs concerning natural complexity measures. We then design a MAAP to exactly solve the Maximum Flow Problem, which translates to an NN of size $\mathcal{O}(m^2 n^2)$.


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FakeFlow: Fake News Detection by Modeling the Flow of Affective Information

Jan 24, 2021
Bilal Ghanem, Simone Paolo Ponzetto, Paolo Rosso, Francisco Rangel

Fake news articles often stir the readers' attention by means of emotional appeals that arouse their feelings. Unlike in short news texts, authors of longer articles can exploit such affective factors to manipulate readers by adding exaggerations or fabricating events, in order to affect the readers' emotions. To capture this, we propose in this paper to model the flow of affective information in fake news articles using a neural architecture. The proposed model, FakeFlow, learns this flow by combining topic and affective information extracted from text. We evaluate the model's performance with several experiments on four real-world datasets. The results show that FakeFlow achieves superior results when compared against state-of-the-art methods, thus confirming the importance of capturing the flow of the affective information in news articles.

* 9 pages, 6 figures, EACL-2021 

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Grammatical Error Correction in Low Error Density Domains: A New Benchmark and Analyses

Oct 15, 2020
Simon Flachs, Ophélie Lacroix, Helen Yannakoudakis, Marek Rei, Anders Søgaard

Evaluation of grammatical error correction (GEC) systems has primarily focused on essays written by non-native learners of English, which however is only part of the full spectrum of GEC applications. We aim to broaden the target domain of GEC and release CWEB, a new benchmark for GEC consisting of website text generated by English speakers of varying levels of proficiency. Website data is a common and important domain that contains far fewer grammatical errors than learner essays, which we show presents a challenge to state-of-the-art GEC systems. We demonstrate that a factor behind this is the inability of systems to rely on a strong internal language model in low error density domains. We hope this work shall facilitate the development of open-domain GEC models that generalize to different topics and genres.

* Accepted at EMNLP 2020 

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Keywords lie far from the mean of all words in local vector space

Aug 21, 2020
Eirini Papagiannopoulou, Grigorios Tsoumakas, Apostolos N. Papadopoulos

Keyword extraction is an important document process that aims at finding a small set of terms that concisely describe a document's topics. The most popular state-of-the-art unsupervised approaches belong to the family of the graph-based methods that build a graph-of-words and use various centrality measures to score the nodes (candidate keywords). In this work, we follow a different path to detect the keywords from a text document by modeling the main distribution of the document's words using local word vector representations. Then, we rank the candidates based on their position in the text and the distance between the corresponding local vectors and the main distribution's center. We confirm the high performance of our approach compared to strong baselines and state-of-the-art unsupervised keyword extraction methods, through an extended experimental study, investigating the properties of the local representations.


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Generating Informative Dialogue Responses with Keywords-Guided Networks

Jul 03, 2020
Heng-Da Xu, Xian-Ling Mao, Zewen Chi, Jing-Jing Zhu, Fanshu Sun, Heyan Huang

Recently, open-domain dialogue systems have attracted growing attention. Most of them use the sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) architecture to generate responses. However, traditional Seq2Seq-based open-domain dialogue models tend to generate generic and safe responses, which are less informative, unlike human responses. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective keywords-guided Sequence-to-Sequence model (KW-Seq2Seq) which uses keywords information as guidance to generate open-domain dialogue responses. Specifically, KW-Seq2Seq first uses a keywords decoder to predict some topic keywords, and then generates the final response under the guidance of them. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the KW-Seq2Seq model produces more informative, coherent and fluent responses, yielding substantive gain in both automatic and human evaluation metrics.


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Parallel ensemble methods for causal direction inference

Jun 05, 2020
Yulai Zhang, Jiachen Wang, Gang Cen, Guiming Luo

Inferring the causal direction between two variables from their observation data is one of the most fundamental and challenging topics in data science. A causal direction inference algorithm maps the observation data into a binary value which represents either x causes y or y causes x. The nature of these algorithms makes the results unstable with the change of data points. Therefore the accuracy of the causal direction inference can be improved significantly by using parallel ensemble frameworks. In this paper, new causal direction inference algorithms based on several ways of parallel ensemble are proposed. Theoretical analyses on accuracy rates are given. Experiments are done on both of the artificial data sets and the real world data sets. The accuracy performances of the methods and their computational efficiencies in parallel computing environment are demonstrated.


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Deep Conversational Recommender Systems: A New Frontier for Goal-Oriented Dialogue Systems

Apr 28, 2020
Dai Hoang Tran, Quan Z. Sheng, Wei Emma Zhang, Salma Abdalla Hamad, Munazza Zaib, Nguyen H. Tran, Lina Yao, Nguyen Lu Dang Khoa

In recent years, the emerging topics of recommender systems that take advantage of natural language processing techniques have attracted much attention, and one of their applications is the Conversational Recommender System (CRS). Unlike traditional recommender systems with content-based and collaborative filtering approaches, CRS learns and models user's preferences through interactive dialogue conversations. In this work, we provide a summarization of the recent evolution of CRS, where deep learning approaches are applied to CRS and have produced fruitful results. We first analyze the research problems and present key challenges in the development of Deep Conversational Recommender Systems (DCRS), then present the current state of the field taken from the most recent researches, including the most common deep learning models that benefit DCRS. Finally, we discuss future directions for this vibrant area.

* 7 pages, 3 figures, 1 table 

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Improved YOLOv3 Object Classification in Intelligent Transportation System

Apr 08, 2020
Yang Zhang, Changhui Hu, Xiaobo Lu

The technology of vehicle and driver detection in Intelligent Transportation System(ITS) is a hot topic in recent years. In particular, the driver detection is still a challenging problem which is conductive to supervising traffic order and maintaining public safety. In this paper, an algorithm based on YOLOv3 is proposed to realize the detection and classification of vehicles, drivers, and people on the highway, so as to achieve the purpose of distinguishing driver and passenger and form a one-to-one correspondence between vehicles and drivers. The proposed model and contrast experiment are conducted on our self-build traffic driver's face database. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithm is validated by extensive experiments and verified under various complex highway conditions. Compared with other advanced vehicle and driver detection technologies, the model has a good performance and is robust to road blocking, different attitudes, and extreme lighting.


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