A general information transmission model, under independent and identically distributed Gaussian codebook and nearest neighbor decoding rule with processed channel output, is investigated using the performance metric of generalized mutual information. When the encoder and the decoder know the statistical channel model, it is found that the optimal channel output processing function is the conditional expectation operator, thus hinting a potential role of regression, a classical topic in machine learning, for this model. Without utilizing the statistical channel model, a problem formulation inspired by machine learning principles is established, with suitable performance metrics introduced. A data-driven inference algorithm is proposed to solve the problem, and the effectiveness of the algorithm is validated via numerical experiments. Extensions to more general information transmission models are also discussed.
The problem of allocating students to supervisors for the development of a personal project or a dissertation is a crucial activity in the higher education environment, as it enables students to get feedback on their work from an expert and improve their personal, academic, and professional abilities. In this article, we propose a multi-objective and near Pareto optimal genetic algorithm for the allocation of students to supervisors. The allocation takes into consideration the students and supervisors' preferences on research/project topics, the lower and upper supervision quotas of supervisors, as well as the workload balance amongst supervisors. We introduce novel mutation and crossover operators for the student-supervisor allocation problem. The experiments carried out show that the components of the genetic algorithm are more apt for the problem than classic components, and that the genetic algorithm is capable of producing allocations that are near Pareto optimal in a reasonable time.
Artificial Intelligence principles define social and ethical considerations to develop future AI. They come from research institutes, government organizations and industries. All versions of AI principles are with different considerations covering different perspectives and making different emphasis. None of them can be considered as complete and can cover the rest AI principle proposals. Here we introduce LAIP, an effort and platform for linking and analyzing different Artificial Intelligence Principles. We want to explicitly establish the common topics and links among AI Principles proposed by different organizations and investigate on their uniqueness. Based on these efforts, for the long-term future of AI, instead of directly adopting any of the AI principles, we argue for the necessity of incorporating various AI Principles into a comprehensive framework and focusing on how they can interact and complete each other.
Tactile sensors supply useful information during the interaction with an object that can be used for assessing the stability of a grasp. Most of the previous works on this topic processed tactile readings as signals by calculating hand-picked features. Some of them have processed these readings as images calculating characteristics on matrix-like sensors. In this work, we explore how non-matrix sensors (sensors with taxels not arranged exactly in a matrix) can be processed as tactile images as well. In addition, we prove that they can be used for predicting grasp stability by training a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with them. We captured over 2500 real three-fingered grasps on 41 everyday objects to train a CNN that exploited the local connectivity inherent on the non-matrix tactile sensors, achieving 94.2% F1-score on predicting stability.
Human lives are important. The decision to allow self-driving vehicles operate on our roads carries great weight. This has been a hot topic of debate between policy-makers, technologists and public safety institutions. The recent Uber Inc. self-driving car crash, resulting in the death of a pedestrian, has strengthened the argument that autonomous vehicle technology is still not ready for deployment on public roads. In this work, we analyze the Uber car crash and shed light on the question, "Could the Uber Car Crash have been avoided?". We apply state-of-the-art Computer Vision models to this highly practical scenario. More generally, our experimental results are an evaluation of various image enhancement and object recognition techniques for enabling pedestrian safety in low-lighting conditions using the Uber crash as a case study.
There is surprisingly little known about agenda setting for international development in the United Nations (UN) despite it having a significant influence on the process and outcomes of development efforts. This paper addresses this shortcoming using a novel approach that applies natural language processing techniques to countries' annual statements in the UN General Debate. Every year UN member states deliver statements during the General Debate on their governments' perspective on major issues in world politics. These speeches provide invaluable information on state preferences on a wide range of issues, including international development, but have largely been overlooked in the study of global politics. This paper identifies the main international development topics that states raise in these speeches between 1970 and 2016, and examine the country-specific drivers of international development rhetoric.
Cross-modal image synthesis is a topical problem in medical image computing. Existing methods for image synthesis are either tailored to a specific application, require large scale training sets, or are based on partitioning images into overlapping patches. In this paper, we propose a novel Dual cOnvolutional filTer lEarning (DOTE) approach to overcome the drawbacks of these approaches. We construct a closed loop joint filter learning strategy that generates informative feedback for model self-optimization. Our method can leverage data more efficiently thus reducing the size of the required training set. We extensively evaluate DOTE in two challenging tasks: image super-resolution and cross-modality synthesis. The experimental results demonstrate superior performance of our method over other state-of-the-art methods.
A negative result is when the outcome of an experiment or a model is not what is expected or when a hypothesis does not hold. Despite being often overlooked in the scientific community, negative results are results and they carry value. While this topic has been extensively discussed in other fields such as social sciences and biosciences, less attention has been paid to it in the computer vision community. The unique characteristics of computer vision, particularly its experimental aspect, call for a special treatment of this matter. In this paper, I will address what makes negative results important, how they should be disseminated and incentivized, and what lessons can be learned from cognitive vision research in this regard. Further, I will discuss issues such as computer vision and human vision interaction, experimental design and statistical hypothesis testing, explanatory versus predictive modeling, performance evaluation, model comparison, as well as computer vision research culture.
We explore linguistic and behavioral features of dogmatism in social media and construct statistical models that can identify dogmatic comments. Our model is based on a corpus of Reddit posts, collected across a diverse set of conversational topics and annotated via paid crowdsourcing. We operationalize key aspects of dogmatism described by existing psychology theories (such as over-confidence), finding they have predictive power. We also find evidence for new signals of dogmatism, such as the tendency of dogmatic posts to refrain from signaling cognitive processes. When we use our predictive model to analyze millions of other Reddit posts, we find evidence that suggests dogmatism is a deeper personality trait, present for dogmatic users across many different domains, and that users who engage on dogmatic comments tend to show increases in dogmatic posts themselves.
We describe MITRE's submission to the SemEval-2016 Task 6, Detecting Stance in Tweets. This effort achieved the top score in Task A on supervised stance detection, producing an average F1 score of 67.8 when assessing whether a tweet author was in favor or against a topic. We employed a recurrent neural network initialized with features learned via distant supervision on two large unlabeled datasets. We trained embeddings of words and phrases with the word2vec skip-gram method, then used those features to learn sentence representations via a hashtag prediction auxiliary task. These sentence vectors were then fine-tuned for stance detection on several hundred labeled examples. The result was a high performing system that used transfer learning to maximize the value of the available training data.