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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Deep Gaussian Processes: A Survey

Jun 21, 2021
Kalvik Jakkala

Gaussian processes are one of the dominant approaches in Bayesian learning. Although the approach has been applied to numerous problems with great success, it has a few fundamental limitations. Multiple methods in literature have addressed these limitations. However, there has not been a comprehensive survey of the topics as of yet. Most existing surveys focus on only one particular variant of Gaussian processes and their derivatives. This survey details the core motivations for using Gaussian processes, their mathematical formulations, limitations, and research themes that have flourished over the years to address said limitations. Furthermore, one particular research area is Deep Gaussian Processes (DGPs), it has improved substantially in the past decade. The significant publications that advanced the forefront of this research area are outlined in their survey. Finally, a brief discussion on open problems and research directions for future work is presented at the end.

* 23 pages, 5 figures 

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Realistic Evaluation Principles for Cross-document Coreference Resolution

Jun 08, 2021
Arie Cattan, Alon Eirew, Gabriel Stanovsky, Mandar Joshi, Ido Dagan

We point out that common evaluation practices for cross-document coreference resolution have been unrealistically permissive in their assumed settings, yielding inflated results. We propose addressing this issue via two evaluation methodology principles. First, as in other tasks, models should be evaluated on predicted mentions rather than on gold mentions. Doing this raises a subtle issue regarding singleton coreference clusters, which we address by decoupling the evaluation of mention detection from that of coreference linking. Second, we argue that models should not exploit the synthetic topic structure of the standard ECB+ dataset, forcing models to confront the lexical ambiguity challenge, as intended by the dataset creators. We demonstrate empirically the drastic impact of our more realistic evaluation principles on a competitive model, yielding a score which is 33 F1 lower compared to evaluating by prior lenient practices.

* *SEM 2021 

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Reciprocal Feature Learning via Explicit and Implicit Tasks in Scene Text Recognition

May 13, 2021
Hui Jiang, Yunlu Xu, Zhanzhan Cheng, Shiliang Pu, Yi Niu, Wenqi Ren, Fei Wu, Wenming Tan

Text recognition is a popular topic for its broad applications. In this work, we excavate the implicit task, character counting within the traditional text recognition, without additional labor annotation cost. The implicit task plays as an auxiliary branch for complementing the sequential recognition. We design a two-branch reciprocal feature learning framework in order to adequately utilize the features from both the tasks. Through exploiting the complementary effect between explicit and implicit tasks, the feature is reliably enhanced. Extensive experiments on 7 benchmarks show the advantages of the proposed methods in both text recognition and the new-built character counting tasks. In addition, it is convenient yet effective to equip with variable networks and tasks. We offer abundant ablation studies, generalizing experiments with deeper understanding on the tasks. Code is available.

* Accepted by ICDAR 2021 

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Explaining Outcomes of Multi-Party Dialogues using Causal Learning

May 03, 2021
Priyanka Sinha, Pabitra Mitra, Antonio Anastasio Bruto da Costa, Nikolaos Kekatos

Multi-party dialogues are common in enterprise social media on technical as well as non-technical topics. The outcome of a conversation may be positive or negative. It is important to analyze why a dialogue ends with a particular sentiment from the point of view of conflict analysis as well as future collaboration design. We propose an explainable time series mining algorithm for such analysis. A dialogue is represented as an attributed time series of occurrences of keywords, EMPATH categories, and inferred sentiments at various points in its progress. A special decision tree, with decision metrics that take into account temporal relationships between dialogue events, is used for predicting the cause of the outcome sentiment. Interpretable rules mined from the classifier are used to explain the prediction. Experimental results are presented for the enterprise social media posts in a large company.

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Neural Temporal Point Processes: A Review

Apr 27, 2021
Oleksandr Shchur, Ali Caner Türkmen, Tim Januschowski, Stephan Günnemann

Temporal point processes (TPP) are probabilistic generative models for continuous-time event sequences. Neural TPPs combine the fundamental ideas from point process literature with deep learning approaches, thus enabling construction of flexible and efficient models. The topic of neural TPPs has attracted significant attention in the recent years, leading to the development of numerous new architectures and applications for this class of models. In this review paper we aim to consolidate the existing body of knowledge on neural TPPs. Specifically, we focus on important design choices and general principles for defining neural TPP models. Next, we provide an overview of application areas commonly considered in the literature. We conclude this survey with the list of open challenges and important directions for future work in the field of neural TPPs.

* International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) 2021 

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Brain Surface Reconstruction from MRI Images Based on Segmentation Networks Applying Signed Distance Maps

Apr 09, 2021
Heng Fang, Xi Yang, Taichi Kin, Takeo Igarashi

Whole-brain surface extraction is an essential topic in medical imaging systems as it provides neurosurgeons with a broader view of surgical planning and abnormality detection. To solve the problem confronted in current deep learning skull stripping methods lacking prior shape information, we propose a new network architecture that incorporates knowledge of signed distance fields and introduce an additional Laplacian loss to ensure that the prediction results retain shape information. We validated our newly proposed method by conducting experiments on our brain magnetic resonance imaging dataset (111 patients). The evaluation results demonstrate that our approach achieves comparable dice scores and also reduces the Hausdorff distance and average symmetric surface distance, thus producing more stable and smooth brain isosurfaces.

* Accepted by IEEE ISBI 2021 (International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging) 

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Contextual Scene Augmentation and Synthesis via GSACNet

Mar 29, 2021
Mohammad Keshavarzi, Flaviano Christian Reyes, Ritika Shrivastava, Oladapo Afolabi, Luisa Caldas, Allen Y. Yang

Indoor scene augmentation has become an emerging topic in the field of computer vision and graphics with applications in augmented and virtual reality. However, current state-of-the-art systems using deep neural networks require large datasets for training. In this paper we introduce GSACNet, a contextual scene augmentation system that can be trained with limited scene priors. GSACNet utilizes a novel parametric data augmentation method combined with a Graph Attention and Siamese network architecture followed by an Autoencoder network to facilitate training with small datasets. We show the effectiveness of our proposed system by conducting ablation and comparative studies with alternative systems on the Matterport3D dataset. Our results indicate that our scene augmentation outperforms prior art in scene synthesis with limited scene priors available.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2009.12395 by other authors 

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Understanding the role of importance weighting for deep learning

Mar 28, 2021
Da Xu, Yuting Ye, Chuanwei Ruan

The recent paper by Byrd & Lipton (2019), based on empirical observations, raises a major concern on the impact of importance weighting for the over-parameterized deep learning models. They observe that as long as the model can separate the training data, the impact of importance weighting diminishes as the training proceeds. Nevertheless, there lacks a rigorous characterization of this phenomenon. In this paper, we provide formal characterizations and theoretical justifications on the role of importance weighting with respect to the implicit bias of gradient descent and margin-based learning theory. We reveal both the optimization dynamics and generalization performance under deep learning models. Our work not only explains the various novel phenomenons observed for importance weighting in deep learning, but also extends to the studies where the weights are being optimized as part of the model, which applies to a number of topics under active research.

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