We suggest a model for metaphor interpretation using word embeddings trained over a relatively large corpus. Our system handles nominal metaphors, like "time is money". It generates a ranked list of potential interpretations of given metaphors. Candidate meanings are drawn from collocations of the topic ("time") and vehicle ("money") components, automatically extracted from a dependency-parsed corpus. We explore adding candidates derived from word association norms (common human responses to cues). Our ranking procedure considers similarity between candidate interpretations and metaphor components, measured in a semantic vector space. Lastly, a clustering algorithm removes semantically related duplicates, thereby allowing other candidate interpretations to attain higher rank. We evaluate using a set of annotated metaphors.
Recent years have seen a flourishing of neural keyphrase generation works, including the release of several large-scale datasets and a host of new models to tackle them. Model performance on keyphrase generation tasks has increased significantly with evolving deep learning research. However, there lacks a comprehensive comparison among models, and an investigation on related factors (e.g., architectural choice, decoding strategy) that may affect a keyphrase generation system's performance. In this empirical study, we aim to fill this gap by providing extensive experimental results and analyzing the most crucial factors impacting the performance of keyphrase generation models. We hope this study can help clarify some of the uncertainties surrounding the keyphrase generation task and facilitate future research on this topic.
In this paper, we revisit the challenging problem of unsupervised single-document summarization and study the following aspects: Integer linear programming (ILP) based algorithms, Parameterized normalization of term and sentence scores, and Title-driven approaches for summarization. We describe a new framework, NewsSumm, that includes many existing and new approaches for summarization including ILP and title-driven approaches. NewsSumm's flexibility allows to combine different algorithms and sentence scoring schemes seamlessly. Our results combining sentence scoring with ILP and normalization are in contrast to previous work on this topic, showing the importance of a broader search for optimal parameters. We also show that the new title-driven reduction idea leads to improvement in performance for both unsupervised and supervised approaches considered.
The attention mechanism has quickly become ubiquitous in NLP. In addition to improving performance of models, attention has been widely used as a glimpse into the inner workings of NLP models. The latter aspect has in the recent years become a common topic of discussion, most notably in work of Jain and Wallace, 2019; Wiegreffe and Pinter, 2019. With the shortcomings of using attention weights as a tool of transparency revealed, the attention mechanism has been stuck in a limbo without concrete proof when and whether it can be used as an explanation. In this paper, we provide an explanation as to why attention has seen rightful critique when used with recurrent networks in sequence classification tasks. We propose a remedy to these issues in the form of a word level objective and our findings give credibility for attention to provide faithful interpretations of recurrent models.
Text summarization is the research area aiming at creating a short and condensed version of the original document, which conveys the main idea of the document in a few words. This research topic has started to attract the attention of a large community of researchers, and it is nowadays counted as one of the most promising research areas. In general, text summarization algorithms aim at using a plain text document as input and then output a summary. However, in real-world applications, most of the data is not in a plain text format. Instead, there is much manifold information to be summarized, such as the summary for a web page based on a query in the search engine, extreme long document (e.g., academic paper), dialog history and so on. In this paper, we focus on the survey of these new summarization tasks and approaches in the real-world application.
Semantic image understanding is a challenging topic in computer vision. It requires to detect all objects in an image, but also to identify all the relations between them. Detected objects, their labels and the discovered relations can be used to construct a scene graph which provides an abstract semantic interpretation of an image. In previous works, relations were identified by solving an assignment problem formulated as Mixed-Integer Linear Programs. In this work, we interpret that formulation as Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE). The proposed architecture performs scene graph inference by solving a neural variant of an ODE by end-to-end learning. It achieves state-of-the-art results on all three benchmark tasks: scene graph generation (SGGen), classification (SGCls) and visual relationship detection (PredCls) on Visual Genome benchmark.
Normalizing flows provide a general mechanism for defining expressive probability distributions, only requiring the specification of a (usually simple) base distribution and a series of bijective transformations. There has been much recent work on normalizing flows, ranging from improving their expressive power to expanding their application. We believe the field has now matured and is in need of a unified perspective. In this review, we attempt to provide such a perspective by describing flows through the lens of probabilistic modeling and inference. We place special emphasis on the fundamental principles of flow design, and discuss foundational topics such as expressive power and computational trade-offs. We also broaden the conceptual framing of flows by relating them to more general probability transformations. Lastly, we summarize the use of flows for tasks such as generative modeling, approximate inference, and supervised learning.
The goal of policy gradient approaches is to find a policy in a given class of policies which maximizes the expected return. Given a differentiable model of the policy, we want to apply a gradient-ascent technique to reach a local optimum. We mainly use gradient ascent, because it is theoretically well researched. The main issue is that the policy gradient with respect to the expected return is not available, thus we need to estimate it. As policy gradient algorithms also tend to require on-policy data for the gradient estimate, their biggest weakness is sample efficiency. For this reason, most research is focused on finding algorithms with improved sample efficiency. This paper provides a formal introduction to policy gradient that shows the development of policy gradient approaches, and should enable the reader to follow current research on the topic.
The notion of uncertainty is of major importance in machine learning and constitutes a key element of machine learning methodology. In line with the statistical tradition, uncertainty has long been perceived as almost synonymous with standard probability and probabilistic predictions. Yet, due to the steadily increasing relevance of machine learning for practical applications and related issues such as safety requirements, new problems and challenges have recently been identified by machine learning scholars, and these problems may call for new methodological developments. In particular, this includes the importance of distinguishing between (at least) two different types of uncertainty, often refereed to as aleatoric and epistemic. In this paper, we provide an introduction to the topic of uncertainty in machine learning as well as an overview of hitherto attempts at handling uncertainty in general and formalizing this distinction in particular.
Previous storytelling approaches mostly focused on optimizing traditional metrics such as BLEU, ROUGE and CIDEr. In this paper, we re-examine this problem from a different angle, by looking deep into what defines a realistically-natural and topically-coherent story. To this end, we propose three assessment criteria: relevance, coherence and expressiveness, which we observe through empirical analysis could constitute a "high-quality" story to the human eye. Following this quality guideline, we propose a reinforcement learning framework, ReCo-RL, with reward functions designed to capture the essence of these quality criteria. Experiments on the Visual Storytelling Dataset (VIST) with both automatic and human evaluations demonstrate that our ReCo-RL model achieves better performance than state-of-the-art baselines on both traditional metrics and the proposed new criteria.