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A Survey on Machine Reading Comprehension Systems

Jan 06, 2020
Razieh Baradaran, Razieh Ghiasi, Hossein Amirkhani

Machine reading comprehension is a challenging task and hot topic in natural language processing. Its goal is to develop systems to answer the questions regarding a given context. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey on different aspects of machine reading comprehension systems, including their approaches, structures, input/outputs, and research novelties. We illustrate the recent trends in this field based on 124 reviewed papers from 2016 to 2018. Our investigations demonstrate that the focus of research has changed in recent years from answer extraction to answer generation, from single to multi-document reading comprehension, and from learning from scratch to using pre-trained embeddings. We also discuss the popular datasets and the evaluation metrics in this field. The paper ends with investigating the most cited papers and their contributions.

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Leveraging Structural and Semantic Correspondence for Attribute-Oriented Aspect Sentiment Discovery

Aug 28, 2019
Zhe Zhang, Munindar P. Singh

Opinionated text often involves attributes such as authorship and location that influence the sentiments expressed for different aspects. We posit that structural and semantic correspondence is both prevalent in opinionated text, especially when associated with attributes, and crucial in accurately revealing its latent aspect and sentiment structure. However, it is not recognized by existing approaches. We propose Trait, an unsupervised probabilistic model that discovers aspects and sentiments from text and associates them with different attributes. To this end, Trait infers and leverages structural and semantic correspondence using a Markov Random Field. We show empirically that by incorporating attributes explicitly Trait significantly outperforms state-of-the-art baselines both by generating attribute profiles that accord with our intuitions, as shown via visualization, and yielding topics of greater semantic cohesion.

* EMNLP 2019 

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WIDER Face and Pedestrian Challenge 2018: Methods and Results

Feb 19, 2019
Chen Change Loy, Dahua Lin, Wanli Ouyang, Yuanjun Xiong, Shuo Yang, Qingqiu Huang, Dongzhan Zhou, Wei Xia, Quanquan Li, Ping Luo, Junjie Yan, Jianfeng Wang, Zuoxin Li, Ye Yuan, Boxun Li, Shuai Shao, Gang Yu, Fangyun Wei, Xiang Ming, Dong Chen, Shifeng Zhang, Cheng Chi, Zhen Lei, Stan Z. Li, Hongkai Zhang, Bingpeng Ma, Hong Chang, Shiguang Shan, Xilin Chen, Wu Liu, Boyan Zhou, Huaxiong Li, Peng Cheng, Tao Mei, Artem Kukharenko, Artem Vasenin, Nikolay Sergievskiy, Hua Yang, Liangqi Li, Qiling Xu, Yuan Hong, Lin Chen, Mingjun Sun, Yirong Mao, Shiying Luo, Yongjun Li, Ruiping Wang, Qiaokang Xie, Ziyang Wu, Lei Lu, Yiheng Liu, Wengang Zhou

This paper presents a review of the 2018 WIDER Challenge on Face and Pedestrian. The challenge focuses on the problem of precise localization of human faces and bodies, and accurate association of identities. It comprises of three tracks: (i) WIDER Face which aims at soliciting new approaches to advance the state-of-the-art in face detection, (ii) WIDER Pedestrian which aims to find effective and efficient approaches to address the problem of pedestrian detection in unconstrained environments, and (iii) WIDER Person Search which presents an exciting challenge of searching persons across 192 movies. In total, 73 teams made valid submissions to the challenge tracks. We summarize the winning solutions for all three tracks. and present discussions on open problems and potential research directions in these topics.

* Report of ECCV 2018 workshop: WIDER Face and Pedestrian Challenge 

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Robust Neural Abstractive Summarization Systems and Evaluation against Adversarial Information

Oct 14, 2018
Lisa Fan, Dong Yu, Lu Wang

Sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) neural models have been actively investigated for abstractive summarization. Nevertheless, existing neural abstractive systems frequently generate factually incorrect summaries and are vulnerable to adversarial information, suggesting a crucial lack of semantic understanding. In this paper, we propose a novel semantic-aware neural abstractive summarization model that learns to generate high quality summaries through semantic interpretation over salient content. A novel evaluation scheme with adversarial samples is introduced to measure how well a model identifies off-topic information, where our model yields significantly better performance than the popular pointer-generator summarizer. Human evaluation also confirms that our system summaries are uniformly more informative and faithful as well as less redundant than the seq2seq model.

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Hierarchical Neural Story Generation

May 13, 2018
Angela Fan, Mike Lewis, Yann Dauphin

We explore story generation: creative systems that can build coherent and fluent passages of text about a topic. We collect a large dataset of 300K human-written stories paired with writing prompts from an online forum. Our dataset enables hierarchical story generation, where the model first generates a premise, and then transforms it into a passage of text. We gain further improvements with a novel form of model fusion that improves the relevance of the story to the prompt, and adding a new gated multi-scale self-attention mechanism to model long-range context. Experiments show large improvements over strong baselines on both automated and human evaluations. Human judges prefer stories generated by our approach to those from a strong non-hierarchical model by a factor of two to one.

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Doppler-Radar Based Hand Gesture Recognition System Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Nov 22, 2017
Jiajun Zhang, Jinkun Tao, Jiangtao Huangfu, Zhiguo Shi

Hand gesture recognition has long been a hot topic in human computer interaction. Traditional camera-based hand gesture recognition systems cannot work properly under dark circumstances. In this paper, a Doppler Radar based hand gesture recognition system using convolutional neural networks is proposed. A cost-effective Doppler radar sensor with dual receiving channels at 5.8GHz is used to acquire a big database of four standard gestures. The received hand gesture signals are then processed with time-frequency analysis. Convolutional neural networks are used to classify different gestures. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the system with an accuracy of 98%. Besides, related factors such as recognition distance and gesture scale are investigated.

* Best Paper Award of International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems 2017 

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Early prediction of the duration of protests using probabilistic Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Decision Trees

Sep 18, 2017
Satyakama Paul, Madhur Hasija, Tshilidzi Marwala

Protests and agitations are an integral part of every democratic civil society. In recent years, South Africa has seen a large increase in its protests. The objective of this paper is to provide an early prediction of the duration of protests from its free flowing English text description. Free flowing descriptions of the protests help us in capturing its various nuances such as multiple causes, courses of actions etc. Next we use a combination of unsupervised learning (topic modeling) and supervised learning (decision trees) to predict the duration of the protests. Our results show a high degree (close to 90%) of accuracy in early prediction of the duration of protests.We expect the work to help police and other security services in planning and managing their resources in better handling protests in future.

* This paper is to appear in the 4th IEEE Latin American Conference on Computational Intelligence LA-CCI. This paper was written by Satyakama and Madhur and supervised by Tshilidzi 

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Contextualizing Geometric Data Analysis and Related Data Analytics: A Virtual Microscope for Big Data Analytics

Sep 15, 2017
Fionn Murtagh, Mohsen Farid

The relevance and importance of contextualizing data analytics is described. Qualitative characteristics might form the context of quantitative analysis. Topics that are at issue include: contrast, baselining, secondary data sources, supplementary data sources, dynamic and heterogeneous data. In geometric data analysis, especially with the Correspondence Analysis platform, various case studies are both experimented with, and are reviewed. In such aspects as paradigms followed, and technical implementation, implicitly and explicitly, an important point made is the major relevance of such work for both burgeoning analytical needs and for new analytical areas including Big Data analytics, and so on. For the general reader, it is aimed to display and describe, first of all, the analytical outcomes that are subject to analysis here, and then proceed to detail the more quantitative outcomes that fully support the analytics carried out.

* Journal of Interdisciplinary Methodologies and Issues in Sciences, Digital Contextualization (September 19, 2017) jimis:3936 
* 19 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables, Journal of Interdisciplinary Methodologies and Issues in Science, vol. 3, 2017. This version contains DOI, ISSN 

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TransG : A Generative Mixture Model for Knowledge Graph Embedding

Sep 08, 2017
Han Xiao, Minlie Huang, Yu Hao, Xiaoyan Zhu

Recently, knowledge graph embedding, which projects symbolic entities and relations into continuous vector space, has become a new, hot topic in artificial intelligence. This paper addresses a new issue of multiple relation semantics that a relation may have multiple meanings revealed by the entity pairs associated with the corresponding triples, and proposes a novel Gaussian mixture model for embedding, TransG. The new model can discover latent semantics for a relation and leverage a mixture of relation component vectors for embedding a fact triple. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first generative model for knowledge graph embedding, which is able to deal with multiple relation semantics. Extensive experiments show that the proposed model achieves substantial improvements against the state-of-the-art baselines.

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Performing Stance Detection on Twitter Data using Computational Linguistics Techniques

Mar 06, 2017
Gourav G. Shenoy, Erika H. Dsouza, Sandra Kübler

As humans, we can often detect from a persons utterances if he or she is in favor of or against a given target entity (topic, product, another person, etc). But from the perspective of a computer, we need means to automatically deduce the stance of the tweeter, given just the tweet text. In this paper, we present our results of performing stance detection on twitter data using a supervised approach. We begin by extracting bag-of-words to perform classification using TIMBL, then try and optimize the features to improve stance detection accuracy, followed by extending the dataset with two sets of lexicons - arguing, and MPQA subjectivity; next we explore the MALT parser and construct features using its dependency triples, finally we perform analysis using Scikit-learn Random Forest implementation.

* 8 pages, 9 figures, 5 tables 

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