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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Switching Contexts: Transportability Measures for NLP

May 03, 2021
Guy Marshall, Mokanarangan Thayaparan, Philip Osborne, Andre Freitas

This paper explores the topic of transportability, as a sub-area of generalisability. By proposing the utilisation of metrics based on well-established statistics, we are able to estimate the change in performance of NLP models in new contexts. Defining a new measure for transportability may allow for better estimation of NLP system performance in new domains, and is crucial when assessing the performance of NLP systems in new tasks and domains. Through several instances of increasing complexity, we demonstrate how lightweight domain similarity measures can be used as estimators for the transportability in NLP applications. The proposed transportability measures are evaluated in the context of Named Entity Recognition and Natural Language Inference tasks.

* 10 pages, 4 figures. To appear in IWCS 2021 proceedings 

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A review of deep-learning techniques for SAR image restoration

Jan 28, 2021
Loïc Denis, Emanuele Dalsasso, Florence Tupin

The speckle phenomenon remains a major hurdle for the analysis of SAR images. The development of speckle reduction methods closely follows methodological progress in the field of image restoration. The advent of deep neural networks has offered new ways to tackle this longstanding problem. Deep learning for speckle reduction is a very active research topic and already shows restoration performances that exceed that of the previous generations of methods based on the concepts of patches, sparsity, wavelet transform or total variation minimization. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the most recent works and point the main research directions and current challenges of deep learning for SAR image restoration.

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Convening during COVID-19: Lessons learnt from organizing virtual workshops in 2020

Nov 28, 2020
Mandana Samiei, Caroline Weis, Larissa Schiavo, Tatjana Chavdarova, Fariba Yousefi

This report is an account of the authors' experiences as organizers of WiML's "Un-Workshop" event at ICML 2020. Un-workshops focus on participant-driven structured discussions on a pre-selected topic. For clarity, this event was different from the "WiML Workshop", which is usually co-located with NeurIPS. In this manuscript, organizers, share their experiences with the hope that it will help future organizers to host a successful virtual event under similar conditions. Women in Machine Learning (WiML)'s mission is creating connections within a small community of women working in machine learning, in order to encourage mentorship, networking, and interchange of ideas and increase the impact of women in the community.

* 12 pages 

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Theoretical Knowledge Graph Reasoning via Ending Anchored Rules

Nov 12, 2020
Canlin Zhang, Yoshiki Vazquez-Baeza, Andrew Bartko, Chun-Nan Hsu, Ho-Cheol Kim, Yannis Katsis

Discovering precise and specific rules from knowledge graphs is regarded as an essential challenge, which can improve the performances of many downstream tasks and even provide new ways to approach some Natural Language Processing research topics. In this paper, we provide a fundamental theory for knowledge graph reasoning based on ending anchored rules. Our theory provides precise reasons answering why or why not a triple is correct. Then, we implement our theory by what we called the EARDict model. Results show that the EARDict model achieves new state-of-the-art performances on benchmark knowledge graph completion tasks, including a [email protected] score of 80.38 percent on WN18RR.

* 11 pages 

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Survey of Personalization Techniques for Federated Learning

Mar 19, 2020
Viraj Kulkarni, Milind Kulkarni, Aniruddha Pant

Federated learning enables machine learning models to learn from private decentralized data without compromising privacy. The standard formulation of federated learning produces one shared model for all clients. Statistical heterogeneity due to non-IID distribution of data across devices often leads to scenarios where, for some clients, the local models trained solely on their private data perform better than the global shared model thus taking away their incentive to participate in the process. Several techniques have been proposed to personalize global models to work better for individual clients. This paper highlights the need for personalization and surveys recent research on this topic.

* 4 pages 

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Image anomaly detection with capsule networks and imbalanced datasets

Sep 06, 2019
Claudio Piciarelli, Pankaj Mishra, Gian Luca Foresti

Image anomaly detection consists in finding images with anomalous, unusual patterns with respect to a set of normal data. Anomaly detection can be applied to several fields and has numerous practical applications, e.g. in industrial inspection, medical imaging, security enforcement, etc.. However, anomaly detection techniques often still rely on traditional approaches such as one-class Support Vector Machines, while the topic has not been fully developed yet in the context of modern deep learning approaches. In this paper, we propose an image anomaly detection system based on capsule networks under the assumption that anomalous data are available for training but their amount is scarce.

* [978-3-030-30641-0, ICIAP 2019, Part I, LNCS 11751, paper approval (489497_1_En, Chapter 23)] 
* Published in conference ICIAP 2019 

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MaskPlus: Improving Mask Generation for Instance Segmentation

Sep 05, 2019
Shichao Xu, Shuyue Lan, Qi Zhu

Instance segmentation is a promising yet challenging topic in computer vision. Recent approaches such as Mask R-CNN typically divide this problem into two parts -- a detection component and a mask generation branch, and mostly focus on the improvement of the detection part. In this paper, we present an approach that extends Mask R-CNN with five novel optimization techniques for improving the mask generation branch and reducing the conflicts between the mask branch and the detection component in training. These five techniques are independent to each other and can be flexibly utilized in building various instance segmentation architectures for increasing the overall accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with tests on the COCO dataset.

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Automated Machine Learning in Practice: State of the Art and Recent Results

Jul 19, 2019
Lukas Tuggener, Mohammadreza Amirian, Katharina Rombach, Stefan Lörwald, Anastasia Varlet, Christian Westermann, Thilo Stadelmann

A main driver behind the digitization of industry and society is the belief that data-driven model building and decision making can contribute to higher degrees of automation and more informed decisions. Building such models from data often involves the application of some form of machine learning. Thus, there is an ever growing demand in work force with the necessary skill set to do so. This demand has given rise to a new research topic concerned with fitting machine learning models fully automatically - AutoML. This paper gives an overview of the state of the art in AutoML with a focus on practical applicability in a business context, and provides recent benchmark results on the most important AutoML algorithms.

* Accepted full paper at SDS2019, the 6th Swiss Conference on Data Science 

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Ludii as a Competition Platform

Jun 29, 2019
Matthew Stephenson, Éric Piette, Dennis J. N. J. Soemers, Cameron Browne

Ludii is a general game system being developed as part of the ERC-funded Digital Ludeme Project (DLP). While its primary aim is to model, play, and analyse the full range of traditional strategy games, Ludii also has the potential to support a wide range of AI research topics and competitions. This paper describes some of the future competitions and challenges that we intend to run using the Ludii system, highlighting some of its most important aspects that can potentially lead to many algorithm improvements and new avenues of research. We compare and contrast our proposed competition motivations, goals and frameworks against those of existing general game playing competitions, addressing the strengths and weaknesses of each platform.

* Accepted at the IEEE Conference on Games (CoG) 2019 

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