The wealth of Social Big Data (SBD) represents a unique opportunity for organisations to obtain the excessive use of such data abundance to increase their revenues. Hence, there is an imperative need to capture, load, store, process, analyse, transform, interpret, and visualise such manifold social datasets to develop meaningful insights that are specific to an application domain. This paper lays the theoretical background by introducing the state-of-the-art literature review of the research topic. This is associated with a critical evaluation of the current approaches, and fortified with certain recommendations indicated to bridge the research gap.
Recent work has demonstrated that neural language models encode linguistic structure implicitly in a number of ways. However, existing research has not shed light on the process by which this structure is acquired during training. We use SVCCA as a tool for understanding how a language model is implicitly predicting a variety of word cluster tags. We present experiments suggesting that a single recurrent layer of a language model learns linguistic structure in phases. We find, for example, that a language model naturally stabilizes its representation of part of speech earlier than it learns semantic and topic information.
Spectral methods of moments provide a powerful tool for learning the parameters of latent variable models. Despite their theoretical appeal, the applicability of these methods to real data is still limited due to a lack of robustness to model misspecification. In this paper we present a hierarchical approach to methods of moments to circumvent such limitations. Our method is based on replacing the tensor decomposition step used in previous algorithms with approximate joint diagonalization. Experiments on topic modeling show that our method outperforms previous tensor decomposition methods in terms of speed and model quality.
Visual Question Answering (VQA) is an increasingly popular topic in deep learning research, requiring coordination of natural language processing and computer vision modules into a single architecture. We build upon the model which placed first in the VQA Challenge by developing thirteen new attention mechanisms and introducing a simplified classifier. We performed 300 GPU hours of extensive hyperparameter and architecture searches and were able to achieve an evaluation score of 64.78%, outperforming the existing state-of-the-art single model's validation score of 63.15%.
Writing software for controlling robots is a complex task, usually demanding command of many programming languages and requiring significant experimentation. We believe that a bottom-up development process that complements traditional component- and MDSD-based approaches can facilitate experimentation. We propose the use of an internal DSL providing both a tool to interactively create ROS nodes and a behaviour-replacement mechanism to interactively reshape existing ROS nodes by wrapping the external interfaces (the publish/subscribe topics), dynamically controlled using the Python command line interface.
Plan recognition does not work the same way in stories and in "real life" (people tend to jump to conclusions more in stories). We present a theory of this, for the particular case of how objects in stories (or in life) influence plan recognition decisions. We provide a Bayesian network formalization of a simple first-order theory of plans, and show how a particular network parameter seems to govern the difference between "life-like" and "story-like" response. We then show why this parameter would be influenced (in the desired way) by a model of speaker (or author) topic selection which assumes that facts in stories are typically "relevant".
The natural gradient allows for more efficient gradient descent by removing dependencies and biases inherent in a function's parameterization. Several papers present the topic thoroughly and precisely. It remains a very difficult idea to get your head around however. The intent of this note is to provide simple intuition for the natural gradient and its use. We review how an ill conditioned parameter space can undermine learning, introduce the natural gradient by analogy to the more widely understood concept of signal whitening, and present tricks and specific prescriptions for applying the natural gradient to learning problems.
Knowledge graphs that encapsulate personal health information, or personal health knowledge graphs (PHKG), can help enable personalized health care in knowledge-driven systems. In this paper we provide a short survey of existing work surrounding the emerging paradigm of PHKGs and highlight the major challenges that remain. We find that while some preliminary exploration exists on the topic of personal knowledge graphs, development of PHKGs remains under-explored. A range of challenges surrounding the collection, linkage, and maintenance of personal health knowledge remains to be addressed to fully realize PHKGs.
Artificial neural networks, one of the most successful approaches to supervised learning, were originally inspired by their biological counterparts. However, the most successful learning algorithm for artificial neural networks, backpropagation, is considered biologically implausible. We contribute to the topic of biologically plausible neuronal learning by building upon and extending the equilibrium propagation learning framework. Specifically, we introduce: a new neuronal dynamics and learning rule for arbitrary network architectures; a sparsity-inducing method able to prune irrelevant connections; a dynamical-systems characterization of the models, using Lyapunov theory.
This report provides an introduction and overview of the Technical Topic Notes (TTNs) produced in the Towards Identifying and closing Gaps in Assurance of autonomous Road vehicleS (Tigars) project. These notes aim to support the development and evaluation of autonomous vehicles. Part 1 addresses: Assurance-overview and issues, Resilience and Safety Requirements, Open Systems Perspective and Formal Verification and Static Analysis of ML Systems. This report is Part 2 and discusses: Simulation and Dynamic Testing, Defence in Depth and Diversity, Security-Informed Safety Analysis, Standards and Guidelines.