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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Nonmonotonic inference operations

Feb 20, 2002
Michael Freund, Daniel Lehmann

A. Tarski proposed the study of infinitary consequence operations as the central topic of mathematical logic. He considered monotonicity to be a property of all such operations. In this paper, we weaken the monotonicity requirement and consider more general operations, inference operations. These operations describe the nonmonotonic logics both humans and machines seem to be using when infering defeasible information from incomplete knowledge. We single out a number of interesting families of inference operations. This study of infinitary inference operations is inspired by the results of Kraus, Lehmann and Magidor on finitary nonmonotonic operations, but this paper is self-contained.

* Bulletin of the IGPL, Vol. 1 no. 1 (July 1993), pp. 23-68 
* 54 pages. A short version appeared in Studia Logica, Vol. 53 no. 2 (1994) pp. 161-201 

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Uncovering More Shallow Heuristics: Probing the Natural Language Inference Capacities of Transformer-Based Pre-Trained Language Models Using Syllogistic Patterns

Jan 19, 2022
Reto Gubelmann, Siegfried Handschuh

In this article, we explore the shallow heuristics used by transformer-based pre-trained language models (PLMs) that are fine-tuned for natural language inference (NLI). To do so, we construct or own dataset based on syllogistic, and we evaluate a number of models' performance on our dataset. We find evidence that the models rely heavily on certain shallow heuristics, picking up on symmetries and asymmetries between premise and hypothesis. We suggest that the lack of generalization observable in our study, which is becoming a topic of lively debate in the field, means that the PLMs are currently not learning NLI, but rather spurious heuristics.


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The Ninth Advances in Cognitive Systems (ACS) Conference

Jan 16, 2022
Mark Burstein, Mohan Sridharan, David McDonald

ACS is an annual meeting for research on the initial goals of artificial intelligence and cognitive science, which aimed to explain the mind in computational terms and to reproduce the entire range of human cognitive abilities in computational artifacts. Many researchers remain committed to this original vision, and Advances in Cognitive Systems provides a place to present recent results and pose new challenges for the field. The meetings bring together researchers with interests in human-level intelligence, complex cognition, integrated intelligent systems, cognitive architectures, and related topics.


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Physics-based Deep Learning

Sep 11, 2021
Nils Thuerey, Philipp Holl, Maximilian Mueller, Patrick Schnell, Felix Trost, Kiwon Um

This digital book contains a practical and comprehensive introduction of everything related to deep learning in the context of physical simulations. As much as possible, all topics come with hands-on code examples in the form of Jupyter notebooks to quickly get started. Beyond standard supervised learning from data, we'll look at physical loss constraints, more tightly coupled learning algorithms with differentiable simulations, as well as reinforcement learning and uncertainty modeling. We live in exciting times: these methods have a huge potential to fundamentally change what computer simulations can achieve.

* Online version at: https://www.physicsbaseddeeplearning.org/ 

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What's The Latest? A Question-driven News Chatbot

May 12, 2021
Philippe Laban, John Canny, Marti A. Hearst

This work describes an automatic news chatbot that draws content from a diverse set of news articles and creates conversations with a user about the news. Key components of the system include the automatic organization of news articles into topical chatrooms, integration of automatically generated questions into the conversation, and a novel method for choosing which questions to present which avoids repetitive suggestions. We describe the algorithmic framework and present the results of a usability study that shows that news readers using the system successfully engage in multi-turn conversations about specific news stories.

* ACL Demos (2020) 380-387 
* ACL2020 Demo Track, 8 pages, 5 figures 

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Language Networks: a Practical Approach

Oct 13, 2020
Jorge A. V. Tohalino, Diego R. Amancio

This manuscript provides a short and practical introduction to the topic of language networks. This text aims at assisting researchers with no practical experience in text and/or network analysis. We provide a practical tutorial on how to model and characterize texts using network-based features. In this tutorial, we also include examples of pre-processing and network representations. A brief description of the main tasks allying network science and text analysis is also provided. A further development of this text shall include a practical description of network classification via machine learning methods.


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Give Me Convenience and Give Her Death: Who Should Decide What Uses of NLP are Appropriate, and on What Basis?

May 27, 2020
Kobi Leins, Jey Han Lau, Timothy Baldwin

As part of growing NLP capabilities, coupled with an awareness of the ethical dimensions of research, questions have been raised about whether particular datasets and tasks should be deemed off-limits for NLP research. We examine this question with respect to a paper on automatic legal sentencing from EMNLP 2019 which was a source of some debate, in asking whether the paper should have been allowed to be published, who should have been charged with making such a decision, and on what basis. We focus in particular on the role of data statements in ethically assessing research, but also discuss the topic of dual use, and examine the outcomes of similar debates in other scientific disciplines.

* 6 pages; accepted for ACL2020 

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Marginal likelihood computation for model selection and hypothesis testing: an extensive review

May 17, 2020
Fernando Llorente, Luca Martino, David Delgado, Javier Lopez-Santiago

This is an up-to-date introduction to, and overview of, marginal likelihood computation for model selection and hypothesis testing. Computing normalizing constants of probability models (or ratio of constants) is a fundamental issue in many applications in statistics, applied mathematics, signal processing and machine learning. This article provides a comprehensive study of the state-of-the-art of the topic. We highlight limitations, benefits, connections and differences among the different techniques. Problems and possible solutions with the use of improper priors are also described. Some of the most relevant methodologies are compared through theoretical comparisons and numerical experiments.

* Keywords: Marginal likelihood, Bayesian evidence, numerical integration, model selection, hypothesis testing, quadrature rules, double-intractable posteriors, partition functions 

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Personal Health Knowledge Graphs for Patients

Mar 31, 2020
Nidhi Rastogi, Mohammed J. Zaki

Existing patient data analytics platforms fail to incorporate information that has context, is personal, and topical to patients. For a recommendation system to give a suitable response to a query or to derive meaningful insights from patient data, it should consider personal information about the patient's health history, including but not limited to their preferences, locations, and life choices that are currently applicable to them. In this review paper, we critique existing literature in this space and also discuss the various research challenges that come with designing, building, and operationalizing a personal health knowledge graph (PHKG) for patients.

* 3 pages, workshop paper 

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Towards Identifying and closing Gaps in Assurance of autonomous Road vehicleS -- a collection of Technical Notes Part 1

Feb 28, 2020
Robin Bloomfield, Gareth Fletcher, Heidy Khlaaf, Philippa Ryan, Shuji Kinoshita, Yoshiki Kinoshit, Makoto Takeyama, Yutaka Matsubara, Peter Popov, Kazuki Imai, Yoshinori Tsutake

This report provides an introduction and overview of the Technical Topic Notes (TTNs) produced in the Towards Identifying and closing Gaps in Assurance of autonomous Road vehicleS (Tigars) project. These notes aim to support the development and evaluation of autonomous vehicles. Part 1 addresses: Assurance-overview and issues, Resilience and Safety Requirements, Open Systems Perspective and Formal Verification and Static Analysis of ML Systems. Part 2: Simulation and Dynamic Testing, Defence in Depth and Diversity, Security-Informed Safety Analysis, Standards and Guidelines.

* Authors of individual Topic Notes are indicated in the body of the report 

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