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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Operationalizing Framing to Support MultiperspectiveRecommendations of Opinion Pieces

Jan 15, 2021
Mats Mulder, Oana Inel, Jasper Oosterman, Nava Tintarev

Diversity in personalized news recommender systems is often defined as dissimilarity, and based on topic diversity (e.g., corona versus farmers strike). Diversity in news media, however, is understood as multiperspectivity (e.g., different opinions on corona measures), and arguably a key responsibility of the press in a democratic society. While viewpoint diversity is often considered synonymous with source diversity in communication science domain, in this paper, we take a computational view. We operationalize the notion of framing, adopted from communication science. We apply this notion to a re-ranking of topic-relevant recommended lists, to form the basis of a novel viewpoint diversification method. Our offline evaluation indicates that the proposed method is capable of enhancing the viewpoint diversity of recommendation lists according to a diversity metric from literature. In an online study, on the Blendle platform, a Dutch news aggregator platform, with more than 2000 users, we found that users are willing to consume viewpoint diverse news recommendations. We also found that presentation characteristics significantly influence the reading behaviour of diverse recommendations. These results suggest that future research on presentation aspects of recommendations can be just as important as novel viewpoint diversification methods to truly achieve multiperspectivity in online news environments.

* Accepted to ACM FAccT 2021, 

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GIANT: Scalable Creation of a Web-scale Ontology

Apr 05, 2020
Bang Liu, Weidong Guo, Di Niu, Jinwen Luo, Chaoyue Wang, Zhen Wen, Yu Xu

Understanding what online users may pay attention to is key to content recommendation and search services. These services will benefit from a highly structured and web-scale ontology of entities, concepts, events, topics and categories. While existing knowledge bases and taxonomies embody a large volume of entities and categories, we argue that they fail to discover properly grained concepts, events and topics in the language style of online population. Neither is a logically structured ontology maintained among these notions. In this paper, we present GIANT, a mechanism to construct a user-centered, web-scale, structured ontology, containing a large number of natural language phrases conforming to user attentions at various granularities, mined from a vast volume of web documents and search click graphs. Various types of edges are also constructed to maintain a hierarchy in the ontology. We present our graph-neural-network-based techniques used in GIANT, and evaluate the proposed methods as compared to a variety of baselines. GIANT has produced the Attention Ontology, which has been deployed in various Tencent applications involving over a billion users. Online A/B testing performed on Tencent QQ Browser shows that Attention Ontology can significantly improve click-through rates in news recommendation.

* Accepted as full paper by SIGMOD 2020 

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A Troubling Analysis of Reproducibility and Progress in Recommender Systems Research

Nov 18, 2019
Maurizio Ferrari Dacrema, Simone Boglio, Paolo Cremonesi, Dietmar Jannach

The design of algorithms that generate personalized ranked item lists is a central topic of research in the field of recommender systems. In the past few years, in particular, approaches based on deep learning (neural) techniques have become dominant in the literature. For all of them, substantial progress over the state-of-the-art is claimed. However, indications exist of certain problems in today's research practice, e.g., with respect to the choice and optimization of the baselines used for comparison, raising questions about the published claims. In order to obtain a better understanding of the actual progress, we have tried to reproduce recent results in the area of neural recommendation approaches based on collaborative filtering. The worrying outcome of the analysis of these recent works-all were published at prestigious scientific conferences between 2015 and 2018-is that 11 out of the 12 reproducible neural approaches can be outperformed by conceptually simple methods, e.g., based on the nearest-neighbor heuristics. None of the computationally complex neural methods was actually consistently better than already existing learning-based techniques, e.g., using matrix factorization or linear models. In our analysis, we discuss common issues in today's research practice, which, despite the many papers that are published on the topic, have apparently led the field to a certain level of stagnation.

* The article is currently under review. If you spot issues with our evaluation or with the settings we have chosen for the DL algorithms, we welcome your input, please write to us! 

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Semantic Properties of Customer Sentiment in Tweets

Mar 24, 2016
Eun Hee Ko, Diego Klabjan

An increasing number of people are using online social networking services (SNSs), and a significant amount of information related to experiences in consumption is shared in this new media form. Text mining is an emerging technique for mining useful information from the web. We aim at discovering in particular tweets semantic patterns in consumers' discussions on social media. Specifically, the purposes of this study are twofold: 1) finding similarity and dissimilarity between two sets of textual documents that include consumers' sentiment polarities, two forms of positive vs. negative opinions and 2) driving actual content from the textual data that has a semantic trend. The considered tweets include consumers opinions on US retail companies (e.g., Amazon, Walmart). Cosine similarity and K-means clustering methods are used to achieve the former goal, and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), a popular topic modeling algorithm, is used for the latter purpose. This is the first study which discover semantic properties of textual data in consumption context beyond sentiment analysis. In addition to major findings, we apply LDA (Latent Dirichlet Allocations) to the same data and drew latent topics that represent consumers' positive opinions and negative opinions on social media.

* The 28th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications. Victoria, Canada, 2014 

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Development of Hybrid Intelligent Systems and their Applications from Engineering Systems to Complex Systems

Jun 14, 2008
Hamed Owladeghaffari

In this study, we introduce general frame of MAny Connected Intelligent Particles Systems (MACIPS). Connections and interconnections between particles get a complex behavior of such merely simple system (system in system).Contribution of natural computing, under information granulation theory, are the main topic of this spacious skeleton. Upon this clue, we organize different algorithms involved a few prominent intelligent computing and approximate reasoning methods such as self organizing feature map (SOM)[9], Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System[10], Rough Set Theory (RST)[11], collaborative clustering, Genetic Algorithm and Ant Colony System. Upon this, we have employed our algorithms on the several engineering systems, especially emerged systems in Civil and Mineral processing. In other process, we investigated how our algorithms can be taken as a linkage of government-society interaction, where government catches various fashions of behavior: solid (absolute) or flexible. So, transition of such society, by changing of connectivity parameters (noise) from order to disorder is inferred. Add to this, one may find an indirect mapping among finical systems and eventual market fluctuations with MACIPS. In the following sections, we will mention the main topics of the suggested proposal, briefly Details of the proposed algorithms can be found in the references.

* A Brief Report for 10th Young Khwarizmi Award 

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Fine-grained Geolocation Prediction of Tweets with Human Machine Collaboration

Jun 25, 2021
Florina Dutt, Subhajit Das

Twitter is a useful resource to analyze peoples' opinions on various topics. Often these topics are correlated or associated with locations from where these Tweet posts are made. For example, restaurant owners may need to know where their target customers eat with respect to the sentiment of the posts made related to food, policy planners may need to analyze citizens' opinion on relevant issues such as crime, safety, congestion, etc. with respect to specific parts of the city, or county or state. As promising as this is, less than $1\%$ of the crawled Tweet posts come with geolocation tags. That makes accurate prediction of Tweet posts for the non geo-tagged tweets very critical to analyze data in various domains. In this research, we utilized millions of Twitter posts and end-users domain expertise to build a set of deep neural network models using natural language processing (NLP) techniques, that predicts the geolocation of non geo-tagged Tweet posts at various level of granularities such as neighborhood, zipcode, and longitude with latitudes. With multiple neural architecture experiments, and a collaborative human-machine workflow design, our ongoing work on geolocation detection shows promising results that empower end-users to correlate relationship between variables of choice with the location information.

* 7 pages 

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Human Motion Transfer from Poses in the Wild

Apr 07, 2020
Jian Ren, Menglei Chai, Sergey Tulyakov, Chen Fang, Xiaohui Shen, Jianchao Yang

In this paper, we tackle the problem of human motion transfer, where we synthesize novel motion video for a target person that imitates the movement from a reference video. It is a video-to-video translation task in which the estimated poses are used to bridge two domains. Despite substantial progress on the topic, there exist several problems with the previous methods. First, there is a domain gap between training and testing pose sequences--the model is tested on poses it has not seen during training, such as difficult dancing moves. Furthermore, pose detection errors are inevitable, making the job of the generator harder. Finally, generating realistic pixels from sparse poses is challenging in a single step. To address these challenges, we introduce a novel pose-to-video translation framework for generating high-quality videos that are temporally coherent even for in-the-wild pose sequences unseen during training. We propose a pose augmentation method to minimize the training-test gap, a unified paired and unpaired learning strategy to improve the robustness to detection errors, and two-stage network architecture to achieve superior texture quality. To further boost research on the topic, we build two human motion datasets. Finally, we show the superiority of our approach over the state-of-the-art studies through extensive experiments and evaluations on different datasets.

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Scalable Modeling of Conversational-role based Self-presentation Characteristics in Large Online Forums

Dec 10, 2015
Abhimanu Kumar, Shriphani Palakodety, Chong Wang, Carolyn P. Rose, Eric P. Xing, Miaomiao Wen

Online discussion forums are complex webs of overlapping subcommunities (macrolevel structure, across threads) in which users enact different roles depending on which subcommunity they are participating in within a particular time point (microlevel structure, within threads). This sub-network structure is implicit in massive collections of threads. To uncover this structure, we develop a scalable algorithm based on stochastic variational inference and leverage topic models (LDA) along with mixed membership stochastic block (MMSB) models. We evaluate our model on three large-scale datasets, Cancer-ThreadStarter (22K users and 14.4K threads), Cancer-NameMention(15.1K users and 12.4K threads) and StackOverFlow (1.19 million users and 4.55 million threads). Qualitatively, we demonstrate that our model can provide useful explanations of microlevel and macrolevel user presentation characteristics in different communities using the topics discovered from posts. Quantitatively, we show that our model does better than MMSB and LDA in predicting user reply structure within threads. In addition, we demonstrate via synthetic data experiments that the proposed active sub-network discovery model is stable and recovers the original parameters of the experimental setup with high probability.

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Modeling the Experience of Emotion

Mar 04, 2009
Joost Broekens

Affective computing has proven to be a viable field of research comprised of a large number of multidisciplinary researchers resulting in work that is widely published. The majority of this work consists of computational models of emotion recognition, computational modeling of causal factors of emotion and emotion expression through rendered and robotic faces. A smaller part is concerned with modeling the effects of emotion, formal modeling of cognitive appraisal theory and models of emergent emotions. Part of the motivation for affective computing as a field is to better understand emotional processes through computational modeling. One of the four major topics in affective computing is computers that have emotions (the others are recognizing, expressing and understanding emotions). A critical and neglected aspect of having emotions is the experience of emotion (Barrett, Mesquita, Ochsner, and Gross, 2007): what does the content of an emotional episode look like, how does this content change over time and when do we call the episode emotional. Few modeling efforts have these topics as primary focus. The launch of a journal on synthetic emotions should motivate research initiatives in this direction, and this research should have a measurable impact on emotion research in psychology. I show that a good way to do so is to investigate the psychological core of what an emotion is: an experience. I present ideas on how the experience of emotion could be modeled and provide evidence that several computational models of emotion are already addressing the issue.

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Breaking Community Boundary: Comparing Academic and Social Communication Preferences regarding Global Pandemics

Apr 12, 2021
Qingqing Zhou, Chengzhi Zhang

The global spread of COVID-19 has caused pandemics to be widely discussed. This is evident in the large number of scientific articles and the amount of user-generated content on social media. This paper aims to compare academic communication and social communication about the pandemic from the perspective of communication preference differences. It aims to provide information for the ongoing research on global pandemics, thereby eliminating knowledge barriers and information inequalities between the academic and the social communities. First, we collected the full text and the metadata of pandemic-related articles and Twitter data mentioning the articles. Second, we extracted and analyzed the topics and sentiment tendencies of the articles and related tweets. Finally, we conducted pandemic-related differential analysis on the academic community and the social community. We mined the resulting data to generate pandemic communication preferences (e.g., information needs, attitude tendencies) of researchers and the public, respectively. The research results from 50,338 articles and 927,266 corresponding tweets mentioning the articles revealed communication differences about global pandemics between the academic and the social communities regarding the consistency of research recognition and the preferences for particular research topics. The analysis of large-scale pandemic-related tweets also confirmed the communication preference differences between the two communities.

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