When engaging in argumentative discourse, skilled human debaters tailor claims to the beliefs of the audience, to construct effective arguments. Recently, the field of computational argumentation witnessed extensive effort to address the automatic generation of arguments. However, existing approaches do not perform any audience-specific adaptation. In this work, we aim to bridge this gap by studying the task of belief-based claim generation: Given a controversial topic and a set of beliefs, generate an argumentative claim tailored to the beliefs. To tackle this task, we model the people's prior beliefs through their stances on controversial topics and extend state-of-the-art text generation models to generate claims conditioned on the beliefs. Our automatic evaluation confirms the ability of our approach to adapt claims to a set of given beliefs. In a manual study, we additionally evaluate the generated claims in terms of informativeness and their likelihood to be uttered by someone with a respective belief. Our results reveal the limitations of modeling users' beliefs based on their stances, but demonstrate the potential of encoding beliefs into argumentative texts, laying the ground for future exploration of audience reach.
The Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Symposium has been a successful venue of discussion and collaboration since 2014. In that time, the related topic of trust in robotics has been rapidly growing, with major research efforts at universities and laboratories across the world. Indeed, many of the past participants in AI-HRI have been or are now involved with research into trust in HRI. While trust has no consensus definition, it is regularly associated with predictability, reliability, inciting confidence, and meeting expectations. Furthermore, it is generally believed that trust is crucial for adoption of both AI and robotics, particularly when transitioning technologies from the lab to industrial, social, and consumer applications. However, how does trust apply to the specific situations we encounter in the AI-HRI sphere? Is the notion of trust in AI the same as that in HRI? We see a growing need for research that lives directly at the intersection of AI and HRI that is serviced by this symposium. Over the course of the two-day meeting, we propose to create a collaborative forum for discussion of current efforts in trust for AI-HRI, with a sub-session focused on the related topic of explainable AI (XAI) for HRI.
Estimating the actual head orientation from 2D images, with regard to its three degrees of freedom, is a well known problem that is highly significant for a large number of applications involving head pose knowledge. Consequently, this topic has been tackled by a plethora of methods and algorithms the most part of which exploits neural networks. Machine learning methods, indeed, achieve accurate head rotation values yet require an adequate training stage and, to that aim, a relevant number of positive and negative examples. In this paper we take a different approach to this topic by using fractal coding theory and particularly Partitioned Iterated Function Systems to extract the fractal code from the input head image and to compare this representation to the fractal code of a reference model through Hamming distance. According to experiments conducted on both the BIWI and the AFLW2000 databases, the proposed PIFS based head pose estimation method provides accurate yaw/pitch/roll angular values, with a performance approaching that of state of the art of machine-learning based algorithms and exceeding most of non-training based approaches.
Stochastic gradient Markov chain Monte Carlo (SGMCMC) has become a popular method for scalable Bayesian inference. These methods are based on sampling a discrete-time approximation to a continuous time process, such as the Langevin diffusion. When applied to distributions defined on a constrained space the time-discretization error can dominate when we are near the boundary of the space. We demonstrate that because of this, current SGMCMC methods for the simplex struggle with sparse simplex spaces; when many of the components are close to zero. Unfortunately, many popular large-scale Bayesian models, such as network or topic models, require inference on sparse simplex spaces. To avoid the biases caused by this discretization error, we propose the stochastic Cox-Ingersoll-Ross process (SCIR), which removes all discretization error and we prove that samples from the SCIR process are asymptotically unbiased. We discuss how this idea can be extended to target other constrained spaces. Use of the SCIR process within a SGMCMC algorithm is shown to give substantially better performance for a topic model and a Dirichlet process mixture model than existing SGMCMC approaches.
This paper presents a novel approach to modeling curiosity in a mobile robot, which is useful for monitoring and adaptive data collection tasks, especially in the context of long term autonomous missions where pre-programmed missions are likely to have limited utility. We use a realtime topic modeling technique to build a semantic perception model of the environment, using which, we plan a path through the locations in the world with high semantic information content. The life-long learning behavior of the proposed perception model makes it suitable for long-term exploration missions. We validate the approach using simulated exploration experiments using aerial and underwater data, and demonstrate an implementation on the Aqua underwater robot in a variety of scenarios. We find that the proposed exploration paths that are biased towards locations with high topic perplexity, produce better terrain models with high discriminative power. Moreover, we show that the proposed algorithm implemented on Aqua robot is able to do tasks such as coral reef inspection, diver following, and sea floor exploration, without any prior training or preparation.
How to efficiently generate an accurate, well-structured overview report (ORPT) over thousands of related documents is challenging. A well-structured ORPT consists of sections of multiple levels (e.g., sections and subsections). None of the existing multi-document summarization (MDS) algorithms is directed toward this task. To overcome this obstacle, we present NDORGS (Numerous Documents' Overview Report Generation Scheme) that integrates text filtering, keyword scoring, single-document summarization (SDS), topic modeling, MDS, and title generation to generate a coherent, well-structured ORPT. We then devise a multi-criteria evaluation method using techniques of text mining and multi-attribute decision making on a combination of human judgments, running time, information coverage, and topic diversity. We evaluate ORPTs generated by NDORGS on two large corpora of documents, where one is classified and the other unclassified. We show that, using Saaty's pairwise comparison 9-point scale and under TOPSIS, the ORPTs generated on SDS's with the length of 20% of the original documents are the best overall on both datasets.
Existing controllable text generation systems rely on annotated attributes, which greatly limits their capabilities and applications. In this work, we make the first successful attempt to use VAEs to achieve controllable text generation without supervision. We do so by decomposing the latent space of the VAE into two parts: one incorporates structural constraints to capture dominant global variations implicitly present in the data, e.g., sentiment or topic; the other is unstructured and is used for the reconstruction of the source sentences. With the enforced structural constraint, the underlying global variations will be discovered and disentangled during the training of the VAE. The structural constraint also provides a natural recipe for mitigating posterior collapse for the structured part, which cannot be fully resolved by the existing techniques. On the task of text style transfer, our unsupervised approach achieves significantly better performance than previous supervised approaches. By showcasing generation with finer-grained control including Cards-Against-Humanity-style topic transitions within a sentence, we demonstrate that our model can perform controlled text generation in a more flexible way than existing methods.
Principal component analysis (PCA) and related techniques have been successfully employed in natural language processing. Text mining applications in the age of the online social media (OSM) face new challenges due to properties specific to these use cases (e.g. spelling issues specific to texts posted by users, the presence of spammers and bots, service announcements, etc.). In this paper, we employ a Robust PCA technique to separate typical outliers and highly localized topics from the low-dimensional structure present in language use in online social networks. Our focus is on identifying geospatial features among the messages posted by the users of the Twitter microblogging service. Using a dataset which consists of over 200 million geolocated tweets collected over the course of a year, we investigate whether the information present in word usage frequencies can be used to identify regional features of language use and topics of interest. Using the PCA pursuit method, we are able to identify important low-dimensional features, which constitute smoothly varying functions of the geographic location.
In this paper, we present an approach to learning latent semantic analysis models from loosely annotated images for automatic image annotation and indexing. The given annotation in training images is loose due to: (1) ambiguous correspondences between visual features and annotated keywords; (2) incomplete lists of annotated keywords. The second reason motivates us to enrich the incomplete annotation in a simple way before learning topic models. In particular, some imagined keywords are poured into the incomplete annotation through measuring similarity between keywords. Then, both given and imagined annotations are used to learning probabilistic topic models for automatically annotating new images. We conduct experiments on a typical Corel dataset of images and loose annotations, and compare the proposed method with state-of-the-art discrete annotation methods (using a set of discrete blobs to represent an image). The proposed method improves word-driven probability Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA-words) up to a comparable performance with the best discrete annotation method, while a merit of PLSA-words is still kept, i.e., a wider semantic range.