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"Topic": models, code, and papers

How Do People Differ? A Social Media Approach

Aug 09, 2017
Vincent Wong, Yaneer Bar-Yam

Research from a variety of fields including psychology and linguistics have found correlations and patterns in personal attributes and behavior, but efforts to understand the broader heterogeneity in human behavior have not yet integrated these approaches and perspectives with a cohesive methodology. Here we extract patterns in behavior and relate those patterns together in a high-dimensional picture. We use dimension reduction to analyze word usage in text data from the online discussion platform Reddit. We find that pronouns can be used to characterize the space of the two most prominent dimensions that capture the greatest differences in word usage, even though pronouns were not included in the determination of those dimensions. These patterns overlap with patterns of topics of discussion to reveal relationships between pronouns and topics that can describe the user population. This analysis corroborates findings from past research that have identified word use differences across populations and synthesizes them relative to one another. We believe this is a step toward understanding how differences between people are related to each other.

* 13 pages, 4 figures 

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Text Segmentation using Named Entity Recognition and Co-reference Resolution in English and Greek Texts

Oct 28, 2016
Pavlina Fragkou

In this paper we examine the benefit of performing named entity recognition (NER) and co-reference resolution to an English and a Greek corpus used for text segmentation. The aim here is to examine whether the combination of text segmentation and information extraction can be beneficial for the identification of the various topics that appear in a document. NER was performed manually in the English corpus and was compared with the output produced by publicly available annotation tools while, an already existing tool was used for the Greek corpus. Produced annotations from both corpora were manually corrected and enriched to cover four types of named entities. Co-reference resolution i.e., substitution of every reference of the same instance with the same named entity identifier was subsequently performed. The evaluation, using five text segmentation algorithms for the English corpus and four for the Greek corpus leads to the conclusion that, the benefit highly depends on the segment's topic, the number of named entity instances appearing in it, as well as the segment's length.

* 32 pages. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1308.0661, arXiv:1204.2847 by other authors 

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Adapting a Language Model for Controlled Affective Text Generation

Nov 08, 2020
Ishika Singh, Ahsan Barkati, Tushar Goswamy, Ashutosh Modi

Human use language not just to convey information but also to express their inner feelings and mental states. In this work, we adapt the state-of-the-art language generation models to generate affective (emotional) text. We posit a model capable of generating affect-driven and topic-focused sentences without losing grammatical correctness as the affect intensity increases. We propose to incorporate emotion as prior for the probabilistic state-of-the-art text generation model such as GPT-2. The model gives a user the flexibility to control the category and intensity of emotion as well as the topic of the generated text. Previous attempts at modelling fine-grained emotions fall out on grammatical correctness at extreme intensities, but our model is resilient to this and delivers robust results at all intensities. We conduct automated evaluations and human studies to test the performance of our model and provide a detailed comparison of the results with other models. In all evaluations, our model outperforms existing affective text generation models.

* 15 Pages (9 + 2 (references) + 4 (appendix)), accepted at COLING 2020 

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Improving Language Generation with Sentence Coherence Objective

Sep 07, 2020
Ruixiao Sun, Jie Yang, Mehrdad Yousefzadeh

Conditional story generation and contextual text continuation have become increasingly popular topics in NLP community. Existing models are often prone to output paragraphs of texts that gradually diverge from the given prompt. Although the generated text may have a reasonable perplexity and diversity, it could easily be identified by human as gibberish. The goal of our project is to improve the coherence and consistency across sentences in a language-generation model. We aim to solve this issue by first training a sentence pair coherence classifier with GPT-2 pretrained model, and then co-train the GPT-2 language model with this new coherence objective using a method analogous to the REINFORCE algorithm. This fine-tuned language model is able to generate lengthy paragraph conditioned on a given topic without diverging too much. The simplicity of this model allows it to be applicable to a variety of underlying language model architecture since it only modifies the final layer of the pre-trained model.

* 11 pages, 9 figures 

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Few-Shot Class-Incremental Learning

Apr 24, 2020
Xiaoyu Tao, Xiaopeng Hong, Xinyuan Chang, Songlin Dong, Xing Wei, Yihong Gong

The ability to incrementally learn new classes is crucial to the development of real-world artificial intelligence systems. In this paper, we focus on a challenging but practical few-shot class-incremental learning (FSCIL) problem. FSCIL requires CNN models to incrementally learn new classes from very few labelled samples, without forgetting the previously learned ones. To address this problem, we represent the knowledge using a neural gas (NG) network, which can learn and preserve the topology of the feature manifold formed by different classes. On this basis, we propose the TOpology-Preserving knowledge InCrementer (TOPIC) framework. TOPIC mitigates the forgetting of the old classes by stabilizing NG's topology and improves the representation learning for few-shot new classes by growing and adapting NG to new training samples. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art class-incremental learning methods on CIFAR100, miniImageNet, and CUB200 datasets.

* Accepted by CVPR 2020 (oral) 

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Learned SVD: solving inverse problems via hybrid autoencoding

Dec 20, 2019
Yoeri E. Boink, Christoph Brune

Our world is full of physics-driven data where effective mappings between data manifolds are desired. There is an increasing demand for understanding combined model-driven and data-driven learning methods. We propose a nonlinear, learned singular value decomposition (L-SVD), which combines autoencoders that simultaneously learn and connect latent codes for desired signals and given measurements. Classical solution methods for inverse problems are based on regularisation techniques via SVD and variational methods. An open topic in deep learning for inverse problems is how to achieve model reduction via data dimensionality reduction to obtain a regularised inversion. We investigate this topic and provide a promising direction for solving inverse problems in cases where the underlying physics are not fully understood or have very complex behaviour. We show that the building blocks of learned inversion maps can be obtained automatically, with improved performance upon classical methods and better interpretability than black-box methods.

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Recent Advances in Efficient Computation of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Feb 11, 2018
Jian Cheng, Peisong Wang, Gang Li, Qinghao Hu, Hanqing Lu

Deep neural networks have evolved remarkably over the past few years and they are currently the fundamental tools of many intelligent systems. At the same time, the computational complexity and resource consumption of these networks also continue to increase. This will pose a significant challenge to the deployment of such networks, especially in real-time applications or on resource-limited devices. Thus, network acceleration has become a hot topic within the deep learning community. As for hardware implementation of deep neural networks, a batch of accelerators based on FPGA/ASIC have been proposed in recent years. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of recent advances in network acceleration, compression and accelerator design from both algorithm and hardware points of view. Specifically, we provide a thorough analysis of each of the following topics: network pruning, low-rank approximation, network quantization, teacher-student networks, compact network design and hardware accelerators. Finally, we will introduce and discuss a few possible future directions.

* 14 pages, 3 figures 

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Chemical Identification and Indexing in PubMed Articles via BERT and Text-to-Text Approaches

Nov 30, 2021
Virginia Adams, Hoo-Chang Shin, Carol Anderson, Bo Liu, Anas Abidin

The Biocreative VII Track-2 challenge consists of named entity recognition, entity-linking (or entity-normalization), and topic indexing tasks -- with entities and topics limited to chemicals for this challenge. Named entity recognition is a well-established problem and we achieve our best performance with BERT-based BioMegatron models. We extend our BERT-based approach to the entity linking task. After the second stage of pretraining BioBERT with a metric-learning loss strategy called self-alignment pretraining (SAP), we link entities based on the cosine similarity between their SAP-BioBERT word embeddings. Despite the success of our named entity recognition experiments, we find the chemical indexing task generally more challenging. In addition to conventional NER methods, we attempt both named entity recognition and entity linking with a novel text-to-text or "prompt" based method that uses generative language models such as T5 and GPT. We achieve encouraging results with this new approach.

* Submission to the BioCreative VII challenge - Track-2 

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When Creators Meet the Metaverse: A Survey on Computational Arts

Nov 26, 2021
Lik-Hang Lee, Zijun Lin, Rui Hu, Zhengya Gong, Abhishek Kumar, Tangyao Li, Sijia Li, Pan Hui

The metaverse, enormous virtual-physical cyberspace, has brought unprecedented opportunities for artists to blend every corner of our physical surroundings with digital creativity. This article conducts a comprehensive survey on computational arts, in which seven critical topics are relevant to the metaverse, describing novel artworks in blended virtual-physical realities. The topics first cover the building elements for the metaverse, e.g., virtual scenes and characters, auditory, textual elements. Next, several remarkable types of novel creations in the expanded horizons of metaverse cyberspace have been reflected, such as immersive arts, robotic arts, and other user-centric approaches fuelling contemporary creative outputs. Finally, we propose several research agendas: democratising computational arts, digital privacy, and safety for metaverse artists, ownership recognition for digital artworks, technological challenges, and so on. The survey also serves as introductory material for artists and metaverse technologists to begin creations in the realm of surrealistic cyberspace.

* Submitted to ACM Computing Surveys, 36 pages 

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A Survey on Neural Speech Synthesis

Jul 23, 2021
Xu Tan, Tao Qin, Frank Soong, Tie-Yan Liu

Text to speech (TTS), or speech synthesis, which aims to synthesize intelligible and natural speech given text, is a hot research topic in speech, language, and machine learning communities and has broad applications in the industry. As the development of deep learning and artificial intelligence, neural network-based TTS has significantly improved the quality of synthesized speech in recent years. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey on neural TTS, aiming to provide a good understanding of current research and future trends. We focus on the key components in neural TTS, including text analysis, acoustic models and vocoders, and several advanced topics, including fast TTS, low-resource TTS, robust TTS, expressive TTS, and adaptive TTS, etc. We further summarize resources related to TTS (e.g., datasets, opensource implementations) and discuss future research directions. This survey can serve both academic researchers and industry practitioners working on TTS.

* A comprehensive survey on TTS, 63 pages, 18 tables, 7 figures, 457 references 

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