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"Topic": models, code, and papers

The Urban Last Mile Problem: Autonomous Drone Delivery to Your Balcony

Sep 21, 2018
Gino Brunner, Bence Szebedy, Simon Tanner, Roger Wattenhofer

Drone delivery has been a hot topic in the industry in the past few years. However, existing approaches either focus on rural areas or rely on centralized drop-off locations from where the last mile delivery is performed. In this paper we tackle the problem of autonomous last mile delivery in urban environments using an off-the-shelf drone. We build a prototype system that is able to fly to the approximate delivery location using GPS and then find the exact drop-off location using visual navigation. The drop-off location could, e.g., be on a balcony or porch, and simply needs to be indicated by a visual marker on the wall or window. We test our system components in simulated environments, including the visual navigation and collision avoidance. Finally, we deploy our drone in a real-world environment and show how it can find the drop-off point on a balcony. To stimulate future research in this topic we open source our code.


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Semi-supervised learning approaches for predicting South African political sentiment for local government elections

May 04, 2022
Mashadi Ledwaba, Vukosi Marivate

This study aims to understand the South African political context by analysing the sentiments shared on Twitter during the local government elections. An emphasis on the analysis was placed on understanding the discussions led around four predominant political parties ANC, DA, EFF and ActionSA. A semi-supervised approach by means of a graph-based technique to label the vast accessible Twitter data for the classification of tweets into negative and positive sentiment was used. The tweets expressing negative sentiment were further analysed through latent topic extraction to uncover hidden topics of concern associated with each of the political parties. Our findings demonstrated that the general sentiment across South African Twitter users is negative towards all four predominant parties with the worst negative sentiment among users projected towards the current ruling party, ANC, relating to concerns cantered around corruption, incompetence and loadshedding.

* Accepted for DGO 2022 

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Modeling Semantic Relationship in Multi-turn Conversations with Hierarchical Latent Variables

Jun 18, 2019
Lei Shen, Yang Feng, Haolan Zhan

Multi-turn conversations consist of complex semantic structures, and it is still a challenge to generate coherent and diverse responses given previous utterances. It's practical that a conversation takes place under a background, meanwhile, the query and response are usually most related and they are consistent in topic but also different in content. However, little work focuses on such hierarchical relationship among utterances. To address this problem, we propose a Conversational Semantic Relationship RNN (CSRR) model to construct the dependency explicitly. The model contains latent variables in three hierarchies. The discourse-level one captures the global background, the pair-level one stands for the common topic information between query and response, and the utterance-level ones try to represent differences in content. Experimental results show that our model significantly improves the quality of responses in terms of fluency, coherence and diversity compared to baseline methods.

* 6 pages, accepted by ACL 2019 

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Generating Thematic Chinese Poetry using Conditional Variational Autoencoders with Hybrid Decoders

May 25, 2018
Xiaopeng Yang, Xiaowen Lin, Shunda Suo, Ming Li

Computer poetry generation is our first step towards computer writing. Writing must have a theme. The current approaches of using sequence-to-sequence models with attention often produce non-thematic poems. We present a novel conditional variational autoencoder with a hybrid decoder adding the deconvolutional neural networks to the general recurrent neural networks to fully learn topic information via latent variables. This approach significantly improves the relevance of the generated poems by representing each line of the poem not only in a context-sensitive manner but also in a holistic way that is highly related to the given keyword and the learned topic. A proposed augmented word2vec model further improves the rhythm and symmetry. Tests show that the generated poems by our approach are mostly satisfying with regulated rules and consistent themes, and 73.42% of them receive an Overall score no less than 3 (the highest score is 5).


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Dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process for Abnormal Behaviour Detection in Video

Jun 27, 2016
Olga Isupova, Danil Kuzin, Lyudmila Mihaylova

This paper proposes a novel dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process topic model that considers the dependence between successive observations. Conventional posterior inference algorithms for this kind of models require processing of the whole data through several passes. It is computationally intractable for massive or sequential data. We design the batch and online inference algorithms, based on the Gibbs sampling, for the proposed model. It allows to process sequential data, incrementally updating the model by a new observation. The model is applied to abnormal behaviour detection in video sequences. A new abnormality measure is proposed for decision making. The proposed method is compared with the method based on the non- dynamic Hierarchical Dirichlet Process, for which we also derive the online Gibbs sampler and the abnormality measure. The results with synthetic and real data show that the consideration of the dynamics in a topic model improves the classification performance for abnormal behaviour detection.

* 8 pages, International Conference on Information Fusion 2016 

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Plan-And-Write: Towards Better Automatic Storytelling

Nov 20, 2018
Lili Yao, Nanyun Peng, Ralph Weischedel, Kevin Knight, Dongyan Zhao, Rui Yan

Automatic storytelling is challenging since it requires generating long, coherent natural language to describes a sensible sequence of events. Despite considerable efforts on automatic story generation in the past, prior work either is restricted in plot planning, or can only generate stories in a narrow domain. In this paper, we explore open-domain story generation that writes stories given a title (topic) as input. We propose a plan-and-write hierarchical generation framework that first plans a storyline, and then generates a story based on the storyline. We compare two planning strategies. The dynamic schema interweaves story planning and its surface realization in text, while the static schema plans out the entire storyline before generating stories. Experiments show that with explicit storyline planning, the generated stories are more diverse, coherent, and on topic than those generated without creating a full plan, according to both automatic and human evaluations.

* Accepted by AAAI 2019 

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Effective extractive summarization using frequency-filtered entity relationship graphs

Oct 24, 2018
Archit Sakhadeo, Nisheeth Srivastava

Word frequency-based methods for extractive summarization are easy to implement and yield reasonable results across languages. However, they have significant limitations - they ignore the role of context, they offer uneven coverage of topics in a document, and sometimes are disjointed and hard to read. We use a simple premise from linguistic typology - that English sentences are complete descriptors of potential interactions between entities, usually in the order subject-verb-object - to address a subset of these difficulties. We have developed a hybrid model of extractive summarization that combines word-frequency based keyword identification with information from automatically generated entity relationship graphs to select sentences for summaries. Comparative evaluation with word-frequency and topic word-based methods shows that the proposed method is competitive by conventional ROUGE standards, and yields moderately more informative summaries on average, as assessed by a large panel (N=94) of human raters.


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Assessing the impact of machine intelligence on human behaviour: an interdisciplinary endeavour

Jun 07, 2018
Emilia G贸mez, Carlos Castillo, Vicky Charisi, Ver贸nica Dahl, Gustavo Deco, Blagoj Delipetrev, Nicole Dewandre, Miguel 脕ngel Gonz谩lez-Ballester, Fabien Gouyon, Jos茅 Hern谩ndez-Orallo, Perfecto Herrera, Anders Jonsson, Ansgar Koene, Martha Larson, Ram贸n L贸pez de M谩ntaras, Bertin Martens, Marius Miron, Rub茅n Moreno-Bote, Nuria Oliver, Antonio Puertas Gallardo, Heike Schweitzer, Nuria Sebastian, Xavier Serra, Joan Serr脿, Song眉l Tolan, Karina Vold

This document contains the outcome of the first Human behaviour and machine intelligence (HUMAINT) workshop that took place 5-6 March 2018 in Barcelona, Spain. The workshop was organized in the context of a new research programme at the Centre for Advanced Studies, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, which focuses on studying the potential impact of artificial intelligence on human behaviour. The workshop gathered an interdisciplinary group of experts to establish the state of the art research in the field and a list of future research challenges to be addressed on the topic of human and machine intelligence, algorithm's potential impact on human cognitive capabilities and decision making, and evaluation and regulation needs. The document is made of short position statements and identification of challenges provided by each expert, and incorporates the result of the discussions carried out during the workshop. In the conclusion section, we provide a list of emerging research topics and strategies to be addressed in the near future.

* Proceedings of 1st HUMAINT (Human Behaviour and Machine Intelligence) workshop, Barcelona, Spain, March 5-6, 2018, edited by European Commission, Seville, 2018, JRC111773 https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/communities/community/humaint/document/assessing-impact-machine-intelligence-human-behaviour-interdisciplinary. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1409.3097 by other authors 

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On collapsed representation of hierarchical Completely Random Measures

Jun 02, 2016
Gaurav Pandey, Ambedkar Dukkipati

The aim of the paper is to provide an exact approach for generating a Poisson process sampled from a hierarchical CRM, without having to instantiate the infinitely many atoms of the random measures. We use completely random measures~(CRM) and hierarchical CRM to define a prior for Poisson processes. We derive the marginal distribution of the resultant point process, when the underlying CRM is marginalized out. Using well known properties unique to Poisson processes, we were able to derive an exact approach for instantiating a Poisson process with a hierarchical CRM prior. Furthermore, we derive Gibbs sampling strategies for hierarchical CRM models based on Chinese restaurant franchise sampling scheme. As an example, we present the sum of generalized gamma process (SGGP), and show its application in topic-modelling. We show that one can determine the power-law behaviour of the topics and words in a Bayesian fashion, by defining a prior on the parameters of SGGP.

* 11 pages, 1 figure 

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An Empirical Study on Measuring the Similarity of Sentential Arguments with Language Model Domain Adaptation

Feb 19, 2021
ChaeHun Park, Sangwoo Seo

Measuring the similarity between two different sentential arguments is an important task in argument mining. However, one of the challenges in this field is that the dataset must be annotated using expertise in a variety of topics, making supervised learning with labeled data expensive. In this paper, we investigated whether this problem could be alleviated through transfer learning. We first adapted a pretrained language model to a domain of interest using self-supervised learning. Then, we fine-tuned the model to a task of measuring the similarity between sentences taken from different domains. Our approach improves a correlation with human-annotated similarity scores compared to competitive baseline models on the Argument Facet Similarity dataset in an unsupervised setting. Moreover, we achieve comparable performance to a fully supervised baseline model by using only about 60% of the labeled data samples. We believe that our work suggests the possibility of a generalized argument clustering model for various argumentative topics.

* 4+2 pages 

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