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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Systematic Mapping Study on the Machine Learning Lifecycle

Mar 11, 2021
Yuanhao Xie, Luís Cruz, Petra Heck, Jan S. Rellermeyer

The development of artificial intelligence (AI) has made various industries eager to explore the benefits of AI. There is an increasing amount of research surrounding AI, most of which is centred on the development of new AI algorithms and techniques. However, the advent of AI is bringing an increasing set of practical problems related to AI model lifecycle management that need to be investigated. We address this gap by conducting a systematic mapping study on the lifecycle of AI model. Through quantitative research, we provide an overview of the field, identify research opportunities, and provide suggestions for future research. Our study yields 405 publications published from 2005 to 2020, mapped in 5 different main research topics, and 31 sub-topics. We observe that only a minority of publications focus on data management and model production problems, and that more studies should address the AI lifecycle from a holistic perspective.

* Accepted at WAIN21: 1st Workshop on AI Engineering - Software Engineering for AI 

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Characterizing Activity on the Deep and Dark Web

Mar 01, 2019
Nazgol Tavabi, Nathan Bartley, Andrés Abeliuk, Sandeep Soni, Emilio Ferrara, Kristina Lerman

The deep and darkweb (d2web) refers to limited access web sites that require registration, authentication, or more complex encryption protocols to access them. These web sites serve as hubs for a variety of illicit activities: to trade drugs, stolen user credentials, hacking tools, and to coordinate attacks and manipulation campaigns. Despite its importance to cyber crime, the d2web has not been systematically investigated. In this paper, we study a large corpus of messages posted to 80 d2web forums over a period of more than a year. We identify topics of discussion using LDA and use a non-parametric HMM to model the evolution of topics across forums. Then, we examine the dynamic patterns of discussion and identify forums with similar patterns. We show that our approach surfaces hidden similarities across different forums and can help identify anomalous events in this rich, heterogeneous data.

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Sampling Without Time: Recovering Echoes of Light via Temporal Phase Retrieval

Jan 27, 2017
Ayush Bhandari, Aurelien Bourquard, Ramesh Raskar

This paper considers the problem of sampling and reconstruction of a continuous-time sparse signal without assuming the knowledge of the sampling instants or the sampling rate. This topic has its roots in the problem of recovering multiple echoes of light from its low-pass filtered and auto-correlated, time-domain measurements. Our work is closely related to the topic of sparse phase retrieval and in this context, we discuss the advantage of phase-free measurements. While this problem is ill-posed, cues based on physical constraints allow for its appropriate regularization. We validate our theory with experiments based on customized, optical time-of-flight imaging sensors. What singles out our approach is that our sensing method allows for temporal phase retrieval as opposed to the usual case of spatial phase retrieval. Preliminary experiments and results demonstrate a compelling capability of our phase-retrieval based imaging device.

* 12 pages, 4 figures, to appear at the 42nd IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 

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Category Enhanced Word Embedding

Nov 30, 2015
Chunting Zhou, Chonglin Sun, Zhiyuan Liu, Francis C. M. Lau

Distributed word representations have been demonstrated to be effective in capturing semantic and syntactic regularities. Unsupervised representation learning from large unlabeled corpora can learn similar representations for those words that present similar co-occurrence statistics. Besides local occurrence statistics, global topical information is also important knowledge that may help discriminate a word from another. In this paper, we incorporate category information of documents in the learning of word representations and to learn the proposed models in a document-wise manner. Our models outperform several state-of-the-art models in word analogy and word similarity tasks. Moreover, we evaluate the learned word vectors on sentiment analysis and text classification tasks, which shows the superiority of our learned word vectors. We also learn high-quality category embeddings that reflect topical meanings.

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Recommender Systems meet Mechanism Design

Oct 25, 2021
Yang Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis

Machine learning has developed a variety of tools for learning and representing high-dimensional distributions with structure. Recent years have also seen big advances in designing multi-item mechanisms. Akin to overfitting, however, these mechanisms can be extremely sensitive to the Bayesian prior that they target, which becomes problematic when that prior is only approximately known. We consider a multi-item mechanism design problem where the bidders' value distributions can be approximated by a topic model. Our solution builds on a recent robustification framework by Brustle et al., which disentangles the statistical challenge of estimating a multi-dimensional prior from the task of designing a good mechanism for it, robustifying the performance of the latter against the estimation error of the former. We provide an extension of the framework that allows us to exploit the expressive power of topic models to reduce the effective dimensionality of the mechanism design problem.

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Team Enigma at ArgMining-EMNLP 2021: Leveraging Pre-trained Language Models for Key Point Matching

Oct 24, 2021
Manav Nitin Kapadnis, Sohan Patnaik, Siba Smarak Panigrahi, Varun Madhavan, Abhilash Nandy

We present the system description for our submission towards the Key Point Analysis Shared Task at ArgMining 2021. Track 1 of the shared task requires participants to develop methods to predict the match score between each pair of arguments and keypoints, provided they belong to the same topic under the same stance. We leveraged existing state of the art pre-trained language models along with incorporating additional data and features extracted from the inputs (topics, key points, and arguments) to improve performance. We were able to achieve mAP strict and mAP relaxed score of 0.872 and 0.966 respectively in the evaluation phase, securing 5th place on the leaderboard. In the post evaluation phase, we achieved a mAP strict and mAP relaxed score of 0.921 and 0.982 respectively. All the codes to generate reproducible results on our models are available on Github.

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Bayesian Nonparametric Space Partitions: A Survey

Feb 26, 2020
Xuhui Fan, Bin Li, Ling Luo, Scott A. Sisson

Bayesian nonparametric space partition (BNSP) models provide a variety of strategies for partitioning a $D$-dimensional space into a set of blocks. In this way, the data points lie in the same block would share certain kinds of homogeneity. BNSP models can be applied to various areas, such as regression/classification trees, random feature construction, relational modeling, etc. In this survey, we investigate the current progress of BNSP research through the following three perspectives: models, which review various strategies for generating the partitions in the space and discuss their theoretical foundation `self-consistency'; applications, which cover the current mainstream usages of BNSP models and their potential future practises; and challenges, which identify the current unsolved problems and valuable future research topics. As there are no comprehensive reviews of BNSP literature before, we hope that this survey can induce further exploration and exploitation on this topic.

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Stylized Text Generation Using Wasserstein Autoencoders with a Mixture of Gaussian Prior

Nov 10, 2019
Amirpasha Ghabussi, Lili Mou, Olga Vechtomova

Wasserstein autoencoders are effective for text generation. They do not however provide any control over the style and topic of the generated sentences if the dataset has multiple classes and includes different topics. In this work, we present a semi-supervised approach for generating stylized sentences. Our model is trained on a multi-class dataset and learns the latent representation of the sentences using a mixture of Gaussian prior without any adversarial losses. This allows us to generate sentences in the style of a specified class or multiple classes by sampling from their corresponding prior distributions. Moreover, we can train our model on relatively small datasets and learn the latent representation of a specified class by adding external data with other styles/classes to our dataset. While a simple WAE or VAE cannot generate diverse sentences in this case, generated sentences with our approach are diverse, fluent, and preserve the style and the content of the desired classes.

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Framing and Agenda-setting in Russian News: a Computational Analysis of Intricate Political Strategies

Oct 29, 2018
Anjalie Field, Doron Kliger, Shuly Wintner, Jennifer Pan, Dan Jurafsky, Yulia Tsvetkov

Amidst growing concern over media manipulation, NLP attention has focused on overt strategies like censorship and "fake news'". Here, we draw on two concepts from the political science literature to explore subtler strategies for government media manipulation: agenda-setting (selecting what topics to cover) and framing (deciding how topics are covered). We analyze 13 years (100K articles) of the Russian newspaper Izvestia and identify a strategy of distraction: articles mention the U.S. more frequently in the month directly following an economic downturn in Russia. We introduce embedding-based methods for cross-lingually projecting English frames to Russian, and discover that these articles emphasize U.S. moral failings and threats to the U.S. Our work offers new ways to identify subtle media manipulation strategies at the intersection of agenda-setting and framing.

* Accepted as a full paper at EMNLP 2018 

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Long-Term Trends in the Public Perception of Artificial Intelligence

Dec 02, 2016
Ethan Fast, Eric Horvitz

Analyses of text corpora over time can reveal trends in beliefs, interest, and sentiment about a topic. We focus on views expressed about artificial intelligence (AI) in the New York Times over a 30-year period. General interest, awareness, and discussion about AI has waxed and waned since the field was founded in 1956. We present a set of measures that captures levels of engagement, measures of pessimism and optimism, the prevalence of specific hopes and concerns, and topics that are linked to discussions about AI over decades. We find that discussion of AI has increased sharply since 2009, and that these discussions have been consistently more optimistic than pessimistic. However, when we examine specific concerns, we find that worries of loss of control of AI, ethical concerns for AI, and the negative impact of AI on work have grown in recent years. We also find that hopes for AI in healthcare and education have increased over time.

* In AAAI 2017 

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