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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Summarizing Text on Any Aspects: A Knowledge-Informed Weakly-Supervised Approach

Oct 18, 2020
Bowen Tan, Lianhui Qin, Eric P. Xing, Zhiting Hu

Given a document and a target aspect (e.g., a topic of interest), aspect-based abstractive summarization attempts to generate a summary with respect to the aspect. Previous studies usually assume a small pre-defined set of aspects and fall short of summarizing on other diverse topics. In this work, we study summarizing on arbitrary aspects relevant to the document, which significantly expands the application of the task in practice. Due to the lack of supervision data, we develop a new weak supervision construction method and an aspect modeling scheme, both of which integrate rich external knowledge sources such as ConceptNet and Wikipedia. Experiments show our approach achieves performance boosts on summarizing both real and synthetic documents given pre-defined or arbitrary aspects.

* EMNLP 2020, code and data available at https://github.com/tanyuqian/aspect-based-summarization 

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Word Embedding based on Low-Rank Doubly Stochastic Matrix Decomposition

Dec 12, 2018
Denis Sedov, Zhirong Yang

Word embedding, which encodes words into vectors, is an important starting point in natural language processing and commonly used in many text-based machine learning tasks. However, in most current word embedding approaches, the similarity in embedding space is not optimized in the learning. In this paper we propose a novel neighbor embedding method which directly learns an embedding simplex where the similarities between the mapped words are optimal in terms of minimal discrepancy to the input neighborhoods. Our method is built upon two-step random walks between words via topics and thus able to better reveal the topics among the words. Experiment results indicate that our method, compared with another existing word embedding approach, is more favorable for various queries.

* Cheng, L., Leung, A., Ozawa, S. (eds.) ICONIP 2018. LNCS, vol. 11303, pp. 90-100. Springer, Cham (2018) 

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Towards Large-Scale Exploratory Search over Heterogeneous Sources

Nov 20, 2018
Mariia Seleznova, Anton Belyy, Aleksei Sholokhov

Since time immemorial, people have been looking for ways to organize scientific knowledge into some systems to facilitate search and discovery of new ideas. The problem was partially solved in the pre-Internet era using library classifications, but nowadays it is nearly impossible to classify all scientific and popular scientific knowledge manually. There is a clear gap between the diversity and the amount of data available on the Internet and the algorithms for automatic structuring of such data. In our preliminary study, we approach the problem of knowledge discovery on web-scale data with diverse text sources and propose an algorithm to aggregate multiple collections into a single hierarchical topic model. We implement a web service named Rysearch to demonstrate the concept of topical exploratory search and make it available online.

* 5 pages, 3 figures, 1 table 

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Sex, drugs, and violence

Aug 11, 2016
Stefania Raimondo, Frank Rudzicz

Automatically detecting inappropriate content can be a difficult NLP task, requiring understanding context and innuendo, not just identifying specific keywords. Due to the large quantity of online user-generated content, automatic detection is becoming increasingly necessary. We take a largely unsupervised approach using a large corpus of narratives from a community-based self-publishing website and a small segment of crowd-sourced annotations. We explore topic modelling using latent Dirichlet allocation (and a variation), and use these to regress appropriateness ratings, effectively automating rating for suitability. The results suggest that certain topics inferred may be useful in detecting latent inappropriateness -- yielding recall up to 96% and low regression errors.


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Cross-lingual Knowledge Graph Alignment via Graph Matching Neural Network

May 28, 2019
Kun Xu, Liwei Wang, Mo Yu, Yansong Feng, Yan Song, Zhiguo Wang, Dong Yu

Previous cross-lingual knowledge graph (KG) alignment studies rely on entity embeddings derived only from monolingual KG structural information, which may fail at matching entities that have different facts in two KGs. In this paper, we introduce the topic entity graph, a local sub-graph of an entity, to represent entities with their contextual information in KG. From this view, the KB-alignment task can be formulated as a graph matching problem; and we further propose a graph-attention based solution, which first matches all entities in two topic entity graphs, and then jointly model the local matching information to derive a graph-level matching vector. Experiments show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods by a large margin.

* ACL 2019 

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How an Electrical Engineer Became an Artificial Intelligence Researcher, a Multiphase Active Contours Analysis

Mar 29, 2018
Kush R. Varshney

This essay examines how what is considered to be artificial intelligence (AI) has changed over time and come to intersect with the expertise of the author. Initially, AI developed on a separate trajectory, both topically and institutionally, from pattern recognition, neural information processing, decision and control systems, and allied topics by focusing on symbolic systems within computer science departments rather than on continuous systems in electrical engineering departments. The separate evolutions continued throughout the author's lifetime, with some crossover in reinforcement learning and graphical models, but were shocked into converging by the virality of deep learning, thus making an electrical engineer into an AI researcher. Now that this convergence has happened, opportunity exists to pursue an agenda that combines learning and reasoning bridged by interpretable machine learning models.


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Detecting Large Concept Extensions for Conceptual Analysis

Jun 18, 2017
Louis Chartrand, Jackie C. K. Cheung, Mohamed Bouguessa

When performing a conceptual analysis of a concept, philosophers are interested in all forms of expression of a concept in a text---be it direct or indirect, explicit or implicit. In this paper, we experiment with topic-based methods of automating the detection of concept expressions in order to facilitate philosophical conceptual analysis. We propose six methods based on LDA, and evaluate them on a new corpus of court decision that we had annotated by experts and non-experts. Our results indicate that these methods can yield important improvements over the keyword heuristic, which is often used as a concept detection heuristic in many contexts. While more work remains to be done, this indicates that detecting concepts through topics can serve as a general-purpose method for at least some forms of concept expression that are not captured using naive keyword approaches.


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Partial Membership Latent Dirichlet Allocation

Apr 05, 2016
Chao Chen, Alina Zare, J. Tory Cobb

Topic models (e.g., pLSA, LDA, SLDA) have been widely used for segmenting imagery. These models are confined to crisp segmentation. Yet, there are many images in which some regions cannot be assigned a crisp label (e.g., transition regions between a foggy sky and the ground or between sand and water at a beach). In these cases, a visual word is best represented with partial memberships across multiple topics. To address this, we present a partial membership latent Dirichlet allocation (PM-LDA) model and associated parameter estimation algorithms. Experimental results on two natural image datasets and one SONAR image dataset show that PM-LDA can produce both crisp and soft semantic image segmentations; a capability existing methods do not have.

* cut to 6 pages, add sunset results 

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Cue Me In: Content-Inducing Approaches to Interactive Story Generation

Oct 20, 2020
Faeze Brahman, Alexandru Petrusca, Snigdha Chaturvedi

Automatically generating stories is a challenging problem that requires producing causally related and logical sequences of events about a topic. Previous approaches in this domain have focused largely on one-shot generation, where a language model outputs a complete story based on limited initial input from a user. Here, we instead focus on the task of interactive story generation, where the user provides the model mid-level sentence abstractions in the form of cue phrases during the generation process. This provides an interface for human users to guide the story generation. We present two content-inducing approaches to effectively incorporate this additional information. Experimental results from both automatic and human evaluations show that these methods produce more topically coherent and personalized stories compared to baseline methods.

* AACL 2020 

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Vocabulary-based Method for Quantifying Controversy in Social Media

Jan 14, 2020
Juan Manuel Ortiz de Zarate, Esteban Feuerstein

Identifying controversial topics is not only interesting from a social point of view, it also enables the application of methods to avoid the information segregation, creating better discussion contexts and reaching agreements in the best cases. In this paper we develop a systematic method for controversy detection based primarily on the jargon used by the communities in social media. Our method dispenses with the use of domain-specific knowledge, is language-agnostic, efficient and easy to apply. We perform an extensive set of experiments across many languages, regions and contexts, taking controversial and non-controversial topics. We find that our vocabulary-based measure performs better than state of the art measures that are based only on the community graph structure. Moreover, we shows that it is possible to detect polarization through text analysis.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1507.05224 by other authors 

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