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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Structure learning for CTBN's via penalized maximum likelihood methods

Jun 13, 2020
Maryia Shpak, Błażej Miasojedow, Wojciech Rejchel

The continuous-time Bayesian networks (CTBNs) represent a class of stochastic processes, which can be used to model complex phenomena, for instance, they can describe interactions occurring in living processes, in social science models or in medicine. The literature on this topic is usually focused on the case when the dependence structure of a system is known and we are to determine conditional transition intensities (parameters of the network). In the paper, we study the structure learning problem, which is a more challenging task and the existing research on this topic is limited. The approach, which we propose, is based on a penalized likelihood method. We prove that our algorithm, under mild regularity conditions, recognizes the dependence structure of the graph with high probability. We also investigate the properties of the procedure in numerical studies to demonstrate its effectiveness.

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Applying support vector data description for fraud detection

May 31, 2020
Mohamad Khedmati, Masoud Erfani, Mohammad GhasemiGol

Fraud detection is an important topic that applies to various enterprises such as banking and financial sectors, insurance, government agencies, law enforcement, and more. Fraud attempts have been risen remarkably in current years, shaping fraud detection an essential topic for research. One of the main challenges in fraud detection is acquiring fraud samples which is a complex and challenging task. In order to deal with this challenge, we apply one-class classification methods such as SVDD which does not need the fraud samples for training. Also, we present our algorithm REDBSCAN which is an extension of DBSCAN to reduce the number of samples and select those that keep the shape of data. The results obtained by the implementation of the proposed method indicated that the fraud detection process was improved in both performance and speed.

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From Arguments to Key Points: Towards Automatic Argument Summarization

May 04, 2020
Roy Bar-Haim, Lilach Eden, Roni Friedman, Yoav Kantor, Dan Lahav, Noam Slonim

Generating a concise summary from a large collection of arguments on a given topic is an intriguing yet understudied problem. We propose to represent such summaries as a small set of talking points, termed "key points", each scored according to its salience. We show, by analyzing a large dataset of crowd-contributed arguments, that a small number of key points per topic is typically sufficient for covering the vast majority of the arguments. Furthermore, we found that a domain expert can often predict these key points in advance. We study the task of argument-to-key point mapping, and introduce a novel large-scale dataset for this task. We report empirical results for an extensive set of experiments with this dataset, showing promising performance.

* ACL 2020 

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SemEval-2017 Task 4: Sentiment Analysis in Twitter

Dec 02, 2019
Sara Rosenthal, Noura Farra, Preslav Nakov

This paper describes the fifth year of the Sentiment Analysis in Twitter task. SemEval-2017 Task 4 continues with a rerun of the subtasks of SemEval-2016 Task 4, which include identifying the overall sentiment of the tweet, sentiment towards a topic with classification on a two-point and on a five-point ordinal scale, and quantification of the distribution of sentiment towards a topic across a number of tweets: again on a two-point and on a five-point ordinal scale. Compared to 2016, we made two changes: (i) we introduced a new language, Arabic, for all subtasks, and (ii)~we made available information from the profiles of the Twitter users who posted the target tweets. The task continues to be very popular, with a total of 48 teams participating this year.

* sentiment analysis, Twitter, classification, quantification, ranking, English, Arabic 

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Nested Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes

May 02, 2014
John Paisley, Chong Wang, David M. Blei, Michael I. Jordan

We develop a nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) for hierarchical topic modeling. The nHDP is a generalization of the nested Chinese restaurant process (nCRP) that allows each word to follow its own path to a topic node according to a document-specific distribution on a shared tree. This alleviates the rigid, single-path formulation of the nCRP, allowing a document to more easily express thematic borrowings as a random effect. We derive a stochastic variational inference algorithm for the model, in addition to a greedy subtree selection method for each document, which allows for efficient inference using massive collections of text documents. We demonstrate our algorithm on 1.8 million documents from The New York Times and 3.3 million documents from Wikipedia.

* To appear in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Special Issue on Bayesian Nonparametrics 

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Information filtering based on wiki index database

May 08, 2008
A. V. Smirnov, A. A. Krizhanovsky

In this paper we present a profile-based approach to information filtering by an analysis of the content of text documents. The Wikipedia index database is created and used to automatically generate the user profile from the user document collection. The problem-oriented Wikipedia subcorpora are created (using knowledge extracted from the user profile) for each topic of user interests. The index databases of these subcorpora are applied to filtering information flow (e.g., mails, news). Thus, the analyzed texts are classified into several topics explicitly presented in the user profile. The paper concentrates on the indexing part of the approach. The architecture of an application implementing the Wikipedia indexing is described. The indexing method is evaluated using the Russian and Simple English Wikipedia.

* 9 pages, 1 table, 2 figures, 8th International FLINS Conference on Computational Intelligence in Decision and Control, Madrid, Spain, September 21-24, 2008; v2: typo 

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A Survey of Online Hate Speech through the Causal Lens

Sep 16, 2021
Antigoni-Maria Founta, Lucia Specia

The societal issue of digital hostility has previously attracted a lot of attention. The topic counts an ample body of literature, yet remains prominent and challenging as ever due to its subjective nature. We posit that a better understanding of this problem will require the use of causal inference frameworks. This survey summarises the relevant research that revolves around estimations of causal effects related to online hate speech. Initially, we provide an argumentation as to why re-establishing the exploration of hate speech in causal terms is of the essence. Following that, we give an overview of the leading studies classified with respect to the direction of their outcomes, as well as an outline of all related research, and a summary of open research problems that can influence future work on the topic.

* Accepted to CI+NLP: First Workshop on Causal Inference and NLP, part of EMNLP 2021 

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A Review of Stochastic Block Models and Extensions for Graph Clustering

Mar 01, 2019
Clement Lee, Darren J Wilkinson

There have been rapid developments in model-based clustering of graphs, also known as block modelling, over the last ten years or so. We review different approaches and extensions proposed for different aspects in this area, such as the type of the graph, the clustering approach, the inference approach, and whether the number of groups is selected or estimated. We then review unsupervised learning of texts, also known as topic modelling, as the two areas are closely related. Also reviewed are the models that combine block modelling with topic modelling, as such incorporations are natural because both areas have the same goal of model-based clustering. How different approaches cope with various issues will be summarised and compared, to facilitate the demand of practitioners for a concise overview of the current status of these two areas of literature.

* 49 pages, 3 tables 

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A Sensitivity Analysis of the MSMARCO Passage Collection

Jan 11, 2022
Joel Mackenzie, Matthias Petri, Alistair Moffat

The recent MSMARCO passage retrieval collection has allowed researchers to develop highly tuned retrieval systems. One aspect of this data set that makes it distinctive compared to traditional corpora is that most of the topics only have a single answer passage marked relevant. Here we carry out a "what if" sensitivity study, asking whether a set of systems would still have the same relative performance if more passages per topic were deemed to be "relevant", exploring several mechanisms for identifying sets of passages to be so categorized. Our results show that, in general, while run scores can vary markedly if additional plausible passages are presumed to be relevant, the derived system ordering is relatively insensitive to additional relevance, providing support for the methodology that was used at the time the MSMARCO passage collection was created.

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