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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Watch-n-Patch: Unsupervised Learning of Actions and Relations

Mar 11, 2016
Chenxia Wu, Jiemi Zhang, Ozan Sener, Bart Selman, Silvio Savarese, Ashutosh Saxena

There is a large variation in the activities that humans perform in their everyday lives. We consider modeling these composite human activities which comprises multiple basic level actions in a completely unsupervised setting. Our model learns high-level co-occurrence and temporal relations between the actions. We consider the video as a sequence of short-term action clips, which contains human-words and object-words. An activity is about a set of action-topics and object-topics indicating which actions are present and which objects are interacting with. We then propose a new probabilistic model relating the words and the topics. It allows us to model long-range action relations that commonly exist in the composite activities, which is challenging in previous works. We apply our model to the unsupervised action segmentation and clustering, and to a novel application that detects forgotten actions, which we call action patching. For evaluation, we contribute a new challenging RGB-D activity video dataset recorded by the new Kinect v2, which contains several human daily activities as compositions of multiple actions interacting with different objects. Moreover, we develop a robotic system that watches people and reminds people by applying our action patching algorithm. Our robotic setup can be easily deployed on any assistive robot.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1512.04208 

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Semantic Hypergraphs

Aug 28, 2019
Telmo Menezes, Camille Roth

Existing computational methods for the analysis of corpora of text in natural language are still far from approaching a human level of understanding. We attempt to advance the state of the art by introducing a model and algorithmic framework to transform text into recursively structured data. We apply this to the analysis of news titles extracted from a social news aggregation website. We show that a recursive ordered hypergraph is a sufficiently generic structure to represent significant number of fundamental natural language constructs, with advantages over conventional approaches such as semantic graphs. We present a pipeline of transformations from the output of conventional NLP algorithms to such hypergraphs, which we denote as semantic hypergraphs. The features of these transformations include the creation of new concepts from existing ones, the organisation of statements into regular structures of predicates followed by an arbitrary number of entities and the ability to represent statements about other statements. We demonstrate knowledge inference from the hypergraph, identifying claims and expressions of conflicts, along with their participating actors and topics. We show how this enables the actor-centric summarization of conflicts, comparison of topics of claims between actors and networks of conflicts between actors in the context of a given topic. On the whole, we propose a hypergraphic knowledge representation model that can be used to provide effective overviews of a large corpus of text in natural language.

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Real-Time Visual Analysis of High-Volume Social Media Posts

Aug 06, 2021
Johannes Knittel, Steffen Koch, Tan Tang, Wei Chen, Yingcai Wu, Shixia Liu, Thomas Ertl

Breaking news and first-hand reports often trend on social media platforms before traditional news outlets cover them. The real-time analysis of posts on such platforms can reveal valuable and timely insights for journalists, politicians, business analysts, and first responders, but the high number and diversity of new posts pose a challenge. In this work, we present an interactive system that enables the visual analysis of streaming social media data on a large scale in real-time. We propose an efficient and explainable dynamic clustering algorithm that powers a continuously updated visualization of the current thematic landscape as well as detailed visual summaries of specific topics of interest. Our parallel clustering strategy provides an adaptive stream with a digestible but diverse selection of recent posts related to relevant topics. We also integrate familiar visual metaphors that are highly interlinked for enabling both explorative and more focused monitoring tasks. Analysts can gradually increase the resolution to dive deeper into particular topics. In contrast to previous work, our system also works with non-geolocated posts and avoids extensive preprocessing such as detecting events. We evaluated our dynamic clustering algorithm and discuss several use cases that show the utility of our system.

* IEEE VIS 2021, to appear in IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics 

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Examining Untempered Social Media: Analyzing Cascades of Polarized Conversations

Jun 10, 2019
Arunkumar Bagavathi, Pedram Bashiri, Shannon Reid, Matthew Phillips, Siddharth Krishnan

Online social media, periodically serves as a platform for cascading polarizing topics of conversation. The inherent community structure present in online social networks (homophily) and the advent of fringe outlets like Gab have created online "echo chambers" that amplify the effects of polarization, which fuels detrimental behavior. Recently, in October 2018, Gab made headlines when it was revealed that Robert Bowers, the individual behind the Pittsburgh Synagogue massacre, was an active member of this social media site and used it to express his anti-Semitic views and discuss conspiracy theories. Thus to address the need of automated data-driven analyses of such fringe outlets, this research proposes novel methods to discover topics that are prevalent in Gab and how they cascade within the network. Specifically, using approximately 34 million posts, and 3.7 million cascading conversation threads with close to 300k users; we demonstrate that there are essentially five cascading patterns that manifest in Gab and the most "viral" ones begin with an echo-chamber pattern and grow out to the entire network. Also, we empirically show, through two models viz. Susceptible-Infected and Bass, how the cascades structurally evolve from one of the five patterns to the other based on the topic of the conversation with upto 84% accuracy.

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Contextual LSTM (CLSTM) models for Large scale NLP tasks

May 31, 2016
Shalini Ghosh, Oriol Vinyals, Brian Strope, Scott Roy, Tom Dean, Larry Heck

Documents exhibit sequential structure at multiple levels of abstraction (e.g., sentences, paragraphs, sections). These abstractions constitute a natural hierarchy for representing the context in which to infer the meaning of words and larger fragments of text. In this paper, we present CLSTM (Contextual LSTM), an extension of the recurrent neural network LSTM (Long-Short Term Memory) model, where we incorporate contextual features (e.g., topics) into the model. We evaluate CLSTM on three specific NLP tasks: word prediction, next sentence selection, and sentence topic prediction. Results from experiments run on two corpora, English documents in Wikipedia and a subset of articles from a recent snapshot of English Google News, indicate that using both words and topics as features improves performance of the CLSTM models over baseline LSTM models for these tasks. For example on the next sentence selection task, we get relative accuracy improvements of 21% for the Wikipedia dataset and 18% for the Google News dataset. This clearly demonstrates the significant benefit of using context appropriately in natural language (NL) tasks. This has implications for a wide variety of NL applications like question answering, sentence completion, paraphrase generation, and next utterance prediction in dialog systems.

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Personalizing Image Search Results on Flickr

Apr 12, 2007
Kristina Lerman, Anon Plangprasopchok, Chio Wong

The social media site Flickr allows users to upload their photos, annotate them with tags, submit them to groups, and also to form social networks by adding other users as contacts. Flickr offers multiple ways of browsing or searching it. One option is tag search, which returns all images tagged with a specific keyword. If the keyword is ambiguous, e.g., ``beetle'' could mean an insect or a car, tag search results will include many images that are not relevant to the sense the user had in mind when executing the query. We claim that users express their photography interests through the metadata they add in the form of contacts and image annotations. We show how to exploit this metadata to personalize search results for the user, thereby improving search performance. First, we show that we can significantly improve search precision by filtering tag search results by user's contacts or a larger social network that includes those contact's contacts. Secondly, we describe a probabilistic model that takes advantage of tag information to discover latent topics contained in the search results. The users' interests can similarly be described by the tags they used for annotating their images. The latent topics found by the model are then used to personalize search results by finding images on topics that are of interest to the user.

* 12 pages, submitted to AAAI07 workshop on Intelligent Information Personalization 

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Towards A Sentiment Analyzer for Low-Resource Languages

Nov 12, 2020
Dian Indriani, Arbi Haza Nasution, Winda Monika, Salhazan Nasution

Twitter is one of the top influenced social media which has a million number of active users. It is commonly used for microblogging that allows users to share messages, ideas, thoughts and many more. Thus, millions interaction such as short messages or tweets are flowing around among the twitter users discussing various topics that has been happening world-wide. This research aims to analyse a sentiment of the users towards a particular trending topic that has been actively and massively discussed at that time. We chose a hashtag \textit{\#kpujangancurang} that was the trending topic during the Indonesia presidential election in 2019. We use the hashtag to obtain a set of data from Twitter to analyse and investigate further the positive or the negative sentiment of the users from their tweets. This research utilizes rapid miner tool to generate the twitter data and comparing Naive Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbor, Decision Tree, and Multi-Layer Perceptron classification methods to classify the sentiment of the twitter data. There are overall 200 labeled data in this experiment. Overall, Naive Bayes and Multi-Layer Perceptron classification outperformed the other two methods on 11 experiments with different size of training-testing data split. The two classifiers are potential to be used in creating sentiment analyzer for low-resource languages with small corpus.

* Accepted to be published in Proceedings of International Conference on Smart Computing and Cyber Security (SMARTCYBER 2020) 

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Deep Conversational Recommender in Travel

Jun 25, 2019
Lizi Liao, Ryuichi Takanobu, Yunshan Ma, Xun Yang, Minlie Huang, Tat-Seng Chua

When traveling to a foreign country, we are often in dire need of an intelligent conversational agent to provide instant and informative responses to our various queries. However, to build such a travel agent is non-trivial. First of all, travel naturally involves several sub-tasks such as hotel reservation, restaurant recommendation and taxi booking etc, which invokes the need for global topic control. Secondly, the agent should consider various constraints like price or distance given by the user to recommend an appropriate venue. In this paper, we present a Deep Conversational Recommender (DCR) and apply to travel. It augments the sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models with a neural latent topic component to better guide response generation and make the training easier. To consider the various constraints for venue recommendation, we leverage a graph convolutional network (GCN) based approach to capture the relationships between different venues and the match between venue and dialog context. For response generation, we combine the topic-based component with the idea of pointer networks, which allows us to effectively incorporate recommendation results. We perform extensive evaluation on a multi-turn task-oriented dialog dataset in travel domain and the results show that our method achieves superior performance as compared to a wide range of baselines.

* 12 pages, 7 figures, submitted to TKDE. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1809.07070 by other authors 

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User-level Weibo Recommendation incorporating Social Influence based on Semi-Supervised Algorithm

Oct 26, 2012
Daifeng Li, Zhipeng Luo, Golden Guo-zheng Sun, Jie Tang, Jingwei Zhang

Tencent Weibo, as one of the most popular micro-blogging services in China, has attracted millions of users, producing 30-60 millions of weibo (similar as tweet in Twitter) daily. With the overload problem of user generate content, Tencent users find it is more and more hard to browse and find valuable information at the first time. In this paper, we propose a Factor Graph based weibo recommendation algorithm TSI-WR (Topic-Level Social Influence based Weibo Recommendation), which could help Tencent users to find most suitable information. The main innovation is that we consider both direct and indirect social influence from topic level based on social balance theory. The main advantages of adopting this strategy are that it could first build a more accurate description of latent relationship between two users with weak connections, which could help to solve the data sparsity problem; second provide a more accurate recommendation for a certain user from a wider range. Other meaningful contextual information is also combined into our model, which include: Users profile, Users influence, Content of weibos, Topic information of weibos and etc. We also design a semi-supervised algorithm to further reduce the influence of data sparisty. The experiments show that all the selected variables are important and the proposed model outperforms several baseline methods.

* to be sumitted in JASIST 

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What makes us curious? analysis of a corpus of open-domain questions

Oct 28, 2021
Zhaozhen Xu, Amelia Howarth, Nicole Briggs, Nello Cristianini

Every day people ask short questions through smart devices or online forums to seek answers to all kinds of queries. With the increasing number of questions collected it becomes difficult to provide answers to each of them, which is one of the reasons behind the growing interest in automated question answering. Some questions are similar to existing ones that have already been answered, while others could be answered by an external knowledge source such as Wikipedia. An important question is what can be revealed by analysing a large set of questions. In 2017, "We the Curious" science centre in Bristol started a project to capture the curiosity of Bristolians: the project collected more than 10,000 questions on various topics. As no rules were given during collection, the questions are truly open-domain, and ranged across a variety of topics. One important aim for the science centre was to understand what concerns its visitors had beyond science, particularly on societal and cultural issues. We addressed this question by developing an Artificial Intelligence tool that can be used to perform various processing tasks: detection of equivalence between questions; detection of topic and type; and answering of the question. As we focused on the creation of a "generalist" tool, we trained it with labelled data from different datasets. We called the resulting model QBERT. This paper describes what information we extracted from the automated analysis of the WTC corpus of open-domain questions.

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