Child Forensic Interviewing (FI) presents a challenge for effective information retrieval and decision making. The high stakes associated with the process demand that expert legal interviewers are able to effectively establish a channel of communication and elicit substantive knowledge from the child-client while minimizing potential for experiencing trauma. As a first step toward computationally modeling and producing quality spoken interviewing strategies and a generalized understanding of interview dynamics, we propose a novel methodology to computationally model effectiveness criteria, by applying summarization and topic modeling techniques to objectively measure and rank the responsiveness and conversational productivity of a child during FI. We score information retrieval by constructing an agenda to represent general topics of interest and measuring alignment with a given response and leveraging lexical entrainment for responsiveness. For comparison, we present our methods along with traditional metrics of evaluation and discuss the use of prior information for generating situational awareness.
Spatiotemporal graph represents a crucial data structure where the nodes and edges are embedded in a geometric space and can evolve dynamically over time. Nowadays, spatiotemporal graph data is becoming increasingly popular and important, ranging from microscale (e.g. protein folding), to middle-scale (e.g. dynamic functional connectivity), to macro-scale (e.g. human mobility network). Although disentangling and understanding the correlations among spatial, temporal, and graph aspects have been a long-standing key topic in network science, they typically rely on network processing hypothesized by human knowledge. This usually fit well towards the graph properties which can be predefined, but cannot do well for the most cases, especially for many key domains where the human has yet very limited knowledge such as protein folding and biological neuronal networks. In this paper, we aim at pushing forward the modeling and understanding of spatiotemporal graphs via new disentangled deep generative models. Specifically, a new Bayesian model is proposed that factorizes spatiotemporal graphs into spatial, temporal, and graph factors as well as the factors that explain the interplay among them. A variational objective function and new mutual information thresholding algorithms driven by information bottleneck theory have been proposed to maximize the disentanglement among the factors with theoretical guarantees. Qualitative and quantitative experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model over the state-of-the-arts by up to 69.2% for graph generation and 41.5% for interpretability.
Natural Language Inference (NLI) has been extensively studied by the NLP community as a framework for estimating the semantic relation between sentence pairs. While early work identified certain biases in NLI models, recent advancements in modeling and datasets demonstrated promising performance. In this work, we further explore the direct zero-shot applicability of NLI models to real applications, beyond the sentence-pair setting they were trained on. First, we analyze the robustness of these models to longer and out-of-domain inputs. Then, we develop new aggregation methods to allow operating over full documents, reaching state-of-the-art performance on the ContractNLI dataset. Interestingly, we find NLI scores to provide strong retrieval signals, leading to more relevant evidence extractions compared to common similarity-based methods. Finally, we go further and investigate whole document clusters to identify both discrepancies and consensus among sources. In a test case, we find real inconsistencies between Wikipedia pages in different languages about the same topic.
The exponential growth of data generated on the Internet in the current information age is a driving force for the digital economy. Extraction of information is the major value in an accumulated big data. Big data dependency on statistical analysis and hand-engineered rules machine learning algorithms are overwhelmed with vast complexities inherent in human languages. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is equipping machines to understand these human diverse and complicated languages. Text Classification is an NLP task which automatically identifies patterns based on predefined or undefined labeled sets. Common text classification application includes information retrieval, modeling news topic, theme extraction, sentiment analysis, and spam detection. In texts, some sequences of words depend on the previous or next word sequences to make full meaning; this is a challenging dependency task that requires the machine to be able to store some previous important information to impact future meaning. Sequence models such as RNN, GRU, and LSTM is a breakthrough for tasks with long-range dependencies. As such, we applied these models to Binary and Multi-class classification. Results generated were excellent with most of the models performing within the range of 80% and 94%. However, this result is not exhaustive as we believe there is room for improvement if machines are to compete with humans.
There has recently been an explosion of work on spoken dialogue systems, along with an increased interest in open-domain systems that engage in casual conversations on popular topics such as movies, books and music. These systems aim to socially engage, entertain, and even empathize with their users. Since the achievement of such social goals is hard to measure, recent research has used dialogue length or human ratings as evaluation metrics, and developed methods for automatically calculating novel metrics, such as coherence, consistency, relevance and engagement. Here we develop a PARADISE model for predicting the performance of Athena, a dialogue system that has participated in thousands of conversations with real users, while competing as a finalist in the Alexa Prize. We use both user ratings and dialogue length as metrics for dialogue quality, and experiment with predicting these metrics using automatic features that are both system dependent and independent. Our goal is to learn a general objective function that can be used to optimize the dialogue choices of any Alexa Prize system in real time and evaluate its performance. Our best model for predicting user ratings gets an R$^2$ of .136 with a DistilBert model, and the best model for predicting length with system independent features gets an R$^2$ of .865, suggesting that conversation length may be a more reliable measure for automatic training of dialogue systems.
With the development of technology, the use of social media has become quite common. Analyzing comments on social media in areas such as media and advertising plays an important role today. For this reason, new and traditional natural language processing methods are used to detect the emotion of these shares. In this paper, the Latent Dirichlet Allocation, namely LDA, and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization methods in topic modeling were used to determine which emotion the Turkish tweets posted via Twitter. In addition, the accuracy of a proposed n-level method based on LDA was analyzed. Dataset consists of 5 emotions, namely angry, fear, happy, sad and confused. NMF was the most successful method among all topic modeling methods in this study. Then, the F1-measure of Random Forest, Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine methods was analyzed by obtaining a file suitable for Weka by using the word weights and class labels of the topics. Among the Weka results, the most successful method was n-stage LDA, and the most successful algorithm was Random Forest.
When engaging in argumentative discourse, skilled human debaters tailor claims to the beliefs of the audience, to construct effective arguments. Recently, the field of computational argumentation witnessed extensive effort to address the automatic generation of arguments. However, existing approaches do not perform any audience-specific adaptation. In this work, we aim to bridge this gap by studying the task of belief-based claim generation: Given a controversial topic and a set of beliefs, generate an argumentative claim tailored to the beliefs. To tackle this task, we model the people's prior beliefs through their stances on controversial topics and extend state-of-the-art text generation models to generate claims conditioned on the beliefs. Our automatic evaluation confirms the ability of our approach to adapt claims to a set of given beliefs. In a manual study, we additionally evaluate the generated claims in terms of informativeness and their likelihood to be uttered by someone with a respective belief. Our results reveal the limitations of modeling users' beliefs based on their stances, but demonstrate the potential of encoding beliefs into argumentative texts, laying the ground for future exploration of audience reach.
Communication is now a standard tool in the central bank's monetary policy toolkit. Theoretically, communication provides the central bank an opportunity to guide public expectations, and it has been shown empirically that central bank communication can lead to financial market fluctuations. However, there has been little research into which dimensions or topics of information are most important in causing these fluctuations. We develop a semi-automatic methodology that summarizes the FOMC statements into its main themes, automatically selects the best model based on coherency, and assesses whether there is a significant impact of these themes on the shape of the U.S Treasury yield curve using topic modeling methods from the machine learning literature. Our findings suggest that the FOMC statements can be decomposed into three topics: (i) information related to the economic conditions and the mandates, (ii) information related to monetary policy tools and intermediate targets, and (iii) information related to financial markets and the financial crisis. We find that statements are most influential during the financial crisis and the effects are mostly present in the curvature of the yield curve through information related to the financial theme.
Image-based 3D object modeling refers to the process of converting raw optical images to 3D digital representations of the objects. Very often, such models are desired to be dimensionally true, semantically labeled with photorealistic appearance (reality-based modeling). Laser scanning was deemed as the standard (and direct) way to obtaining highly accurate 3D measurements of objects, while one would have to abide the high acquisition cost and its unavailability on some of the platforms. Nowadays the image-based methods backboned by the recently developed advanced dense image matching algorithms and geo-referencing paradigms, are becoming the dominant approaches, due to its high flexibility, availability and low cost. The largely automated geometric processing of images in a 3D object reconstruction workflow, from ordered/unordered raw imagery to textured meshes, is becoming a critical part of the reality-based 3D modeling. This article summarizes the overall geometric processing workflow, with focuses on introducing the state-of-the-art methods of three major components of geometric processing: 1) geo-referencing; 2) Image dense matching 3) texture mapping. Finally, we will draw conclusions and share our outlooks of the topics discussed in this article.
To address the lack of comparative evaluation of Human-in-the-Loop Topic Modeling (HLTM) systems, we implement and evaluate three contrasting HLTM approaches using simulation experiments. These approaches are based on previously proposed frameworks, including constraints and informed prior-based methods. User control is desired, so we propose a control metric to measure whether refinement operations are applied as users expect. Informed prior-based methods provide better control than constraints, but constraints yield higher quality topics.