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"Topic Modeling": models, code, and papers

L2RS: A Learning-to-Rescore Mechanism for Automatic Speech Recognition

Oct 25, 2019
Yuanfeng Song, Di Jiang, Xuefang Zhao, Qian Xu, Raymond Chi-Wing Wong, Lixin Fan, Qiang Yang

Modern Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems primarily rely on scores from an Acoustic Model (AM) and a Language Model (LM) to rescore the N-best lists. With the abundance of recent natural language processing advances, the information utilized by current ASR for evaluating the linguistic and semantic legitimacy of the N-best hypotheses is rather limited. In this paper, we propose a novel Learning-to-Rescore (L2RS) mechanism, which is specialized for utilizing a wide range of textual information from the state-of-the-art NLP models and automatically deciding their weights to rescore the N-best lists for ASR systems. Specifically, we incorporate features including BERT sentence embedding, topic vector, and perplexity scores produced by n-gram LM, topic modeling LM, BERT LM and RNNLM to train a rescoring model. We conduct extensive experiments based on a public dataset, and experimental results show that L2RS outperforms not only traditional rescoring methods but also its deep neural network counterparts by a substantial improvement of 20.67% in terms of [email protected] L2RS paves the way for developing more effective rescoring models for ASR.

* 5 pages, 3 figures 
  

Dominant Codewords Selection with Topic Model for Action Recognition

May 01, 2016
Hirokatsu Kataoka, Masaki Hayashi, Kenji Iwata, Yutaka Satoh, Yoshimitsu Aoki, Slobodan Ilic

In this paper, we propose a framework for recognizing human activities that uses only in-topic dominant codewords and a mixture of intertopic vectors. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is used to develop approximations of human motion primitives; these are mid-level representations, and they adaptively integrate dominant vectors when classifying human activities. In LDA topic modeling, action videos (documents) are represented by a bag-of-words (input from a dictionary), and these are based on improved dense trajectories. The output topics correspond to human motion primitives, such as finger moving or subtle leg motion. We eliminate the impurities, such as missed tracking or changing light conditions, in each motion primitive. The assembled vector of motion primitives is an improved representation of the action. We demonstrate our method on four different datasets.

* in CVPRW16 
  

Bayesian Nonparametric Space Partitions: A Survey

Feb 26, 2020
Xuhui Fan, Bin Li, Ling Luo, Scott A. Sisson

Bayesian nonparametric space partition (BNSP) models provide a variety of strategies for partitioning a $D$-dimensional space into a set of blocks. In this way, the data points lie in the same block would share certain kinds of homogeneity. BNSP models can be applied to various areas, such as regression/classification trees, random feature construction, relational modeling, etc. In this survey, we investigate the current progress of BNSP research through the following three perspectives: models, which review various strategies for generating the partitions in the space and discuss their theoretical foundation `self-consistency'; applications, which cover the current mainstream usages of BNSP models and their potential future practises; and challenges, which identify the current unsolved problems and valuable future research topics. As there are no comprehensive reviews of BNSP literature before, we hope that this survey can induce further exploration and exploitation on this topic.

  

The KL-Divergence between a Graph Model and its Fair I-Projection as a Fairness Regularizer

Mar 02, 2021
Maarten Buyl, Tijl De Bie

Learning and reasoning over graphs is increasingly done by means of probabilistic models, e.g. exponential random graph models, graph embedding models, and graph neural networks. When graphs are modeling relations between people, however, they will inevitably reflect biases, prejudices, and other forms of inequity and inequality. An important challenge is thus to design accurate graph modeling approaches while guaranteeing fairness according to the specific notion of fairness that the problem requires. Yet, past work on the topic remains scarce, is limited to debiasing specific graph modeling methods, and often aims to ensure fairness in an indirect manner. We propose a generic approach applicable to most probabilistic graph modeling approaches. Specifically, we first define the class of fair graph models corresponding to a chosen set of fairness criteria. Given this, we propose a fairness regularizer defined as the KL-divergence between the graph model and its I-projection onto the set of fair models. We demonstrate that using this fairness regularizer in combination with existing graph modeling approaches efficiently trades-off fairness with accuracy, whereas the state-of-the-art models can only make this trade-off for the fairness criterion that they were specifically designed for.

  

Conversation Generation with Concept Flow

Nov 07, 2019
Houyu Zhang, Zhenghao Liu, Chenyan Xiong, Zhiyuan Liu

Human conversations naturally evolve around related entities and connected concepts, while may also shift from topic to topic. This paper presents ConceptFlow, which leverages commonsense knowledge graphs to explicitly model such conversation flows for better conversation response generation. ConceptFlow grounds the conversation inputs to the latent concept space and represents the potential conversation flow as a concept flow along the commonsense relations. The concept is guided by a graph attention mechanism that models the possibility of the conversation evolving towards different concepts. The conversation response is then decoded using the encodings of both utterance texts and concept flows, integrating the learned conversation structure in the concept space. Our experiments on Reddit conversations demonstrate the advantage of ConceptFlow over previous commonsense aware dialog models and fine-tuned GPT-2 models, while using much fewer parameters but with explicit modeling of conversation structures.

  

Hierarchical Dirichlet Scaling Process

Feb 11, 2015
Dongwoo Kim, Alice Oh

We present the \textit{hierarchical Dirichlet scaling process} (HDSP), a Bayesian nonparametric mixed membership model. The HDSP generalizes the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) to model the correlation structure between metadata in the corpus and mixture components. We construct the HDSP based on the normalized gamma representation of the Dirichlet process, and this construction allows incorporating a scaling function that controls the membership probabilities of the mixture components. We develop two scaling methods to demonstrate that different modeling assumptions can be expressed in the HDSP. We also derive the corresponding approximate posterior inference algorithms using variational Bayes. Through experiments on datasets of newswire, medical journal articles, conference proceedings, and product reviews, we show that the HDSP results in a better predictive performance than labeled LDA, partially labeled LDA, and author topic model and a better negative review classification performance than the supervised topic model and SVM.

  

ZeroBERTo -- Leveraging Zero-Shot Text Classification by Topic Modeling

Jan 04, 2022
Alexandre Alcoforado, Thomas Palmeira Ferraz, Rodrigo Gerber, Enzo Bustos, André Seidel Oliveira, Bruno Miguel Veloso, Fabio Levy Siqueira, Anna Helena Reali Costa

Traditional text classification approaches often require a good amount of labeled data, which is difficult to obtain, especially in restricted domains or less widespread languages. This lack of labeled data has led to the rise of low-resource methods, that assume low data availability in natural language processing. Among them, zero-shot learning stands out, which consists of learning a classifier without any previously labeled data. The best results reported with this approach use language models such as Transformers, but fall into two problems: high execution time and inability to handle long texts as input. This paper proposes a new model, ZeroBERTo, which leverages an unsupervised clustering step to obtain a compressed data representation before the classification task. We show that ZeroBERTo has better performance for long inputs and shorter execution time, outperforming XLM-R by about 12% in the F1 score in the FolhaUOL dataset. Keywords: Low-Resource NLP, Unlabeled data, Zero-Shot Learning, Topic Modeling, Transformers.

* Accepted at PROPOR 2022: 15th International Conference on Computational Processing of Portuguese 
  

"Thought I'd Share First": An Analysis of COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories and Misinformation Spread on Twitter

Dec 14, 2020
Dax Gerts, Courtney D. Shelley, Nidhi Parikh, Travis Pitts, Chrysm Watson Ross, Geoffrey Fairchild, Nidia Yadria Vaquera Chavez, Ashlynn R. Daughton

Background: Misinformation spread through social media is a growing problem, and the emergence of COVID-19 has caused an explosion in new activity and renewed focus on the resulting threat to public health. Given this increased visibility, in-depth analysis of COVID-19 misinformation spread is critical to understanding the evolution of ideas with potential negative public health impact. Methods: Using a curated data set of COVID-19 tweets (N ~120 million tweets) spanning late January to early May 2020, we applied methods including regular expression filtering, supervised machine learning, sentiment analysis, geospatial analysis, and dynamic topic modeling to trace the spread of misinformation and to characterize novel features of COVID-19 conspiracy theories. Results: Random forest models for four major misinformation topics provided mixed results, with narrowly-defined conspiracy theories achieving F1 scores of 0.804 and 0.857, while more broad theories performed measurably worse, with scores of 0.654 and 0.347. Despite this, analysis using model-labeled data was beneficial for increasing the proportion of data matching misinformation indicators. We were able to identify distinct increases in negative sentiment, theory-specific trends in geospatial spread, and the evolution of conspiracy theory topics and subtopics over time. Conclusions: COVID-19 related conspiracy theories show that history frequently repeats itself, with the same conspiracy theories being recycled for new situations. We use a combination of supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and natural language processing techniques to look at the evolution of theories over the first four months of the COVID-19 outbreak, how these theories intertwine, and to hypothesize on more effective public health messaging to combat misinformation in online spaces.

  

Exploring COVID-19 Related Stressors Using Topic Modeling

Jan 12, 2022
Yue Tong Leung, Farzad Khalvati

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected lives of people from different countries for almost two years. The changes on lifestyles due to the pandemic may cause psychosocial stressors for individuals, and have a potential to lead to mental health problems. To provide high quality mental health supports, healthcare organization need to identify the COVID-19 specific stressors, and notice the trends of prevalence of those stressors. This study aims to apply natural language processing (NLP) on social media data to identify the psychosocial stressors during COVID-19 pandemic, and to analyze the trend on prevalence of stressors at different stages of the pandemic. We obtained dataset of 9266 Reddit posts from subreddit \rCOVID19_support, from 14th Feb ,2020 to 19th July 2021. We used Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model and lexicon methods to identify the topics that were mentioned on the subreddit. Our result presented a dashboard to visualize the trend of prevalence of topics about covid-19 related stressors being discussed on social media platform. The result could provide insights about the prevalence of pandemic related stressors during different stages of COVID-19. The NLP techniques leveraged in this study could also be applied to analyze event specific stressors in the future.

  

A Constrained Coupled Matrix-Tensor Factorization for Learning Time-evolving and Emerging Topics

Jun 30, 2018
Sanaz Bahargam, Evangelos E. Papalexakis

Topic discovery has witnessed a significant growth as a field of data mining at large. In particular, time-evolving topic discovery, where the evolution of a topic is taken into account has been instrumental in understanding the historical context of an emerging topic in a dynamic corpus. Traditionally, time-evolving topic discovery has focused on this notion of time. However, especially in settings where content is contributed by a community or a crowd, an orthogonal notion of time is the one that pertains to the level of expertise of the content creator: the more experienced the creator, the more advanced the topic. In this paper, we propose a novel time-evolving topic discovery method which, in addition to the extracted topics, is able to identify the evolution of that topic over time, as well as the level of difficulty of that topic, as it is inferred by the level of expertise of its main contributors. Our method is based on a novel formulation of Constrained Coupled Matrix-Tensor Factorization, which adopts constraints well-motivated for, and, as we demonstrate, are essential for high-quality topic discovery. We qualitatively evaluate our approach using real data from the Physics and also Programming Stack Exchange forum, and we were able to identify topics of varying levels of difficulty which can be linked to external events, such as the announcement of gravitational waves by the LIGO lab in Physics forum. We provide a quantitative evaluation of our method by conducting a user study where experts were asked to judge the coherence and quality of the extracted topics. Finally, our proposed method has implications for automatic curriculum design using the extracted topics, where the notion of the level of difficulty is necessary for the proper modeling of prerequisites and advanced concepts.

  
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