Manually determining concepts present in a group of questions is a challenging and time-consuming process. However, the process is an essential step while modeling a virtual learning environment since a mapping between concepts and questions using mastery level assessment and recommendation engines are required. We investigated unsupervised semantic models (known as topic modeling techniques) to assist computer science teachers in this task and propose a method to transform Computer Science 1 teacher-provided code solutions into representative text documents, including the code structure information. By applying non-negative matrix factorization and latent Dirichlet allocation techniques, we extract the underlying relationship between questions and validate the results using an external dataset. We consider the interpretability of the learned concepts using 14 university professors' data, and the results confirm six semantically coherent clusters using the current dataset. Moreover, the six topics comprise the main concepts present in the test dataset, achieving 0.75 in the normalized pointwise mutual information metric. The metric correlates with human ratings, making the proposed method useful and providing semantics for large amounts of unannotated code.
This study analyzes the political agenda of the European Parliament (EP) plenary, how it has evolved over time, and the manner in which Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have reacted to external and internal stimuli when making plenary speeches. To unveil the plenary agenda and detect latent themes in legislative speeches over time, MEP speech content is analyzed using a new dynamic topic modeling method based on two layers of Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). This method is applied to a new corpus of all English language legislative speeches in the EP plenary from the period 1999-2014. Our findings suggest that two-layer NMF is a valuable alternative to existing dynamic topic modeling approaches found in the literature, and can unveil niche topics and associated vocabularies not captured by existing methods. Substantively, our findings suggest that the political agenda of the EP evolves significantly over time and reacts to exogenous events such as EU Treaty referenda and the emergence of the Euro-crisis. MEP contributions to the plenary agenda are also found to be impacted upon by voting behaviour and the committee structure of the Parliament.
Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) models trained without stopword removal often produce topics with high posterior probabilities on uninformative words, obscuring the underlying corpus content. Even when canonical stopwords are manually removed, uninformative words common in that corpus will still dominate the most probable words in a topic. In this work, we first show how the standard topic quality measures of coherence and pointwise mutual information act counter-intuitively in the presence of common but irrelevant words, making it difficult to even quantitatively identify situations in which topics may be dominated by stopwords. We propose an additional topic quality metric that targets the stopword problem, and show that it, unlike the standard measures, correctly correlates with human judgements of quality. We also propose a simple-to-implement strategy for generating topics that are evaluated to be of much higher quality by both human assessment and our new metric. This approach, a collection of informative priors easily introduced into most LDA-style inference methods, automatically promotes terms with domain relevance and demotes domain-specific stop words. We demonstrate this approach's effectiveness in three very different domains: Department of Labor accident reports, online health forum posts, and NIPS abstracts. Overall we find that current practices thought to solve this problem do not do so adequately, and that our proposal offers a substantial improvement for those interested in interpreting their topics as objects in their own right.
Topic evolution modeling has been researched for a long time and has gained considerable interest. A state-of-the-art method has been recently using word modeling algorithms in combination with community detection mechanisms to achieve better results in a more effective way. We analyse results of this approach and discuss the two major challenges that this approach still faces. Although the topics that have resulted from the recent algorithm are good in general, they are very noisy due to many topics that are very unimportant because of their size, words, or ambiguity. Additionally, the number of words defining each topic is too large, making it difficult to analyse them in their unsorted state. In this paper, we propose approaches to tackle these challenges by adding topic filtering and network analysis metrics to define the importance of a topic. We test different combinations of these metrics to see which combination yields the best results. Furthermore, we add word filtering and ranking to each topic to identify the words with the highest novelty automatically. We evaluate our enhancement methods in two ways: human qualitative evaluation and automatic quantitative evaluation. Moreover, we created two case studies to test the quality of the clusters and words. In the quantitative evaluation, we use the pairwise mutual information score to test the coherency of topics. The quantitative evaluation also includes an analysis of execution times for each part of the program. The results of the experimental evaluations show that the two evaluation methods agree on the positive feasibility of the algorithm. We then show possible extensions in the form of usability and future improvements to the algorithm.
Social media channels such as Twitter have emerged as popular platforms for crowds to respond to public events such as speeches, sports and debates. While this promises tremendous opportunities to understand and make sense of the reception of an event from the social media, the promises come entwined with significant technical challenges. In particular, given an event and an associated large scale collection of tweets, we need approaches to effectively align tweets and the parts of the event they refer to. This in turn raises questions about how to segment the event into smaller yet meaningful parts, and how to figure out whether a tweet is a general one about the entire event or specific one aimed at a particular segment of the event. In this work, we present ET-LDA, an effective method for aligning an event and its tweets through joint statistical modeling of topical influences from the events and their associated tweets. The model enables the automatic segmentation of the events and the characterization of tweets into two categories: (1) episodic tweets that respond specifically to the content in the segments of the events, and (2) steady tweets that respond generally about the events. We present an efficient inference method for this model, and a comprehensive evaluation of its effectiveness over existing methods. In particular, through a user study, we demonstrate that users find the topics, the segments, the alignment, and the episodic tweets discovered by ET-LDA to be of higher quality and more interesting as compared to the state-of-the-art, with improvements in the range of 18-41%.
Objectives To test the feasibility of using Twitter data to assess determinants of consumers' health behavior towards Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination informed by the Integrated Behavior Model (IBM). Methods We used three Twitter datasets spanning from 2014 to 2018. We preprocessed and geocoded the tweets, and then built a rule-based model that classified each tweet into either promotional information or consumers' discussions. We applied topic modeling to discover major themes, and subsequently explored the associations between the topics learned from consumers' discussions and the responses of HPV-related questions in the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Results We collected 2,846,495 tweets and analyzed 335,681 geocoded tweets. Through topic modeling, we identified 122 high-quality topics. The most discussed consumer topic is "cervical cancer screening"; while in promotional tweets, the most popular topic is to increase awareness of "HPV causes cancer". 87 out of the 122 topics are correlated between promotional information and consumers' discussions. Guided by IBM, we examined the alignment between our Twitter findings and the results obtained from HINTS. 35 topics can be mapped to HINTS questions by keywords, 112 topics can be mapped to IBM constructs, and 45 topics have statistically significant correlations with HINTS responses in terms of geographic distributions. Conclusion Not only mining Twitter to assess consumers' health behaviors can obtain results comparable to surveys but can yield additional insights via a theory-driven approach. Limitations exist, nevertheless, these encouraging results impel us to develop innovative ways of leveraging social media in the changing health communication landscape.
Accurate prediction of conversation topics can be a valuable signal for creating coherent and engaging dialog systems. In this work, we focus on context-aware topic classification methods for identifying topics in free-form human-chatbot dialogs. We extend previous work on neural topic classification and unsupervised topic keyword detection by incorporating conversational context and dialog act features. On annotated data, we show that incorporating context and dialog acts leads to relative gains in topic classification accuracy by 35% and on unsupervised keyword detection recall by 11% for conversational interactions where topics frequently span multiple utterances. We show that topical metrics such as topical depth is highly correlated with dialog evaluation metrics such as coherence and engagement implying that conversational topic models can predict user satisfaction. Our work for detecting conversation topics and keywords can be used to guide chatbots towards coherent dialog.
Due to the variety of cyber-attacks or threats, the cybersecurity community enhances the traditional security control mechanisms to an advanced level so that automated tools can encounter potential security threats. Very recently, Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) has been presented as one of the proactive and robust mechanisms because of its automated cybersecurity threat prediction. Generally, CTI collects and analyses data from various sources e.g., online security forums, social media where cyber enthusiasts, analysts, even cybercriminals discuss cyber or computer security-related topics and discovers potential threats based on the analysis. As the manual analysis of every such discussion (posts on online platforms) is time-consuming, inefficient, and susceptible to errors, CTI as an automated tool can perform uniquely to detect cyber threats. In this paper, we identify and explore relevant CTI from hacker forums utilizing different supervised (classification) and unsupervised learning (topic modeling) techniques. To this end, we collect data from a real hacker forum and constructed two datasets: a binary dataset and a multi-class dataset. We then apply several classifiers along with deep neural network-based classifiers and use them on the datasets to compare their performances. We also employ the classifiers on a labeled leaked dataset as our ground truth. We further explore the datasets using unsupervised techniques. For this purpose, we leverage two topic modeling algorithms namely Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF).
IoT is a rapidly emerging paradigm that now encompasses almost every aspect of our modern life. As such, ensuring the security of IoT devices is crucial. IoT devices can differ from traditional computing, thereby the design and implementation of proper security measures can be challenging in IoT devices. We observed that IoT developers discuss their security-related challenges in developer forums like Stack Overflow(SO). However, we find that IoT security discussions can also be buried inside non-security discussions in SO. In this paper, we aim to understand the challenges IoT developers face while applying security practices and techniques to IoT devices. We have two goals: (1) Develop a model that can automatically find security-related IoT discussions in SO, and (2) Study the model output to learn about IoT developer security-related challenges. First, we download 53K posts from SO that contain discussions about IoT. Second, we manually labeled 5,919 sentences from 53K posts as 1 or 0. Third, we use this benchmark to investigate a suite of deep learning transformer models. The best performing model is called SecBot. Fourth, we apply SecBot on the entire posts and find around 30K security related sentences. Fifth, we apply topic modeling to the security-related sentences. Then we label and categorize the topics. Sixth, we analyze the evolution of the topics in SO. We found that (1) SecBot is based on the retraining of the deep learning model RoBERTa. SecBot offers the best F1-Score of 0.935, (2) there are six error categories in misclassified samples by SecBot. SecBot was mostly wrong when the keywords/contexts were ambiguous (e.g., gateway can be a security gateway or a simple gateway), (3) there are 9 security topics grouped into three categories: Software, Hardware, and Network, and (4) the highest number of topics belongs to software security, followed by network security.
Dialogue topic segmentation is critical in several dialogue modeling problems. However, popular unsupervised approaches only exploit surface features in assessing topical coherence among utterances. In this work, we address this limitation by leveraging supervisory signals from the utterance-pair coherence scoring task. First, we present a simple yet effective strategy to generate a training corpus for utterance-pair coherence scoring. Then, we train a BERT-based neural utterance-pair coherence model with the obtained training corpus. Finally, such model is used to measure the topical relevance between utterances, acting as the basis of the segmentation inference. Experiments on three public datasets in English and Chinese demonstrate that our proposal outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines.