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"Topic Modeling": models, code, and papers

Leveraging Natural Learning Processing to Uncover Themes in Clinical Notes of Patients Admitted for Heart Failure

Apr 14, 2022
Ankita Agarwal, Krishnaprasad Thirunarayan, William L. Romine, Amanuel Alambo, Mia Cajita, Tanvi Banerjee

Heart failure occurs when the heart is not able to pump blood and oxygen to support other organs in the body as it should. Treatments include medications and sometimes hospitalization. Patients with heart failure can have both cardiovascular as well as non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Clinical notes of patients with heart failure can be analyzed to gain insight into the topics discussed in these notes and the major comorbidities in these patients. In this regard, we apply machine learning techniques, such as topic modeling, to identify the major themes found in the clinical notes specific to the procedures performed on 1,200 patients admitted for heart failure at the University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System (UI Health). Topic modeling revealed five hidden themes in these clinical notes, including one related to heart disease comorbidities.

* 4 pages, 2 tables, accepted in IEEE EMBC 2022 conference (IEEE International Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference) 
  
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Online Bayesian Collaborative Topic Regression

May 28, 2016
Chenghao Liu, Tao Jin, Steven C. H. Hoi, Peilin Zhao, Jianling Sun

Collaborative Topic Regression (CTR) combines ideas of probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) and topic modeling (e.g., LDA) for recommender systems, which has gained increasing successes in many applications. Despite enjoying many advantages, the existing CTR algorithms have some critical limitations. First of all, they are often designed to work in a batch learning manner, making them unsuitable to deal with streaming data or big data in real-world recommender systems. Second, the document-specific topic proportions of LDA are fed to the downstream PMF, but not reverse, which is sub-optimal as the rating information is not exploited in discovering the low-dimensional representation of documents and thus can result in a sub-optimal representation for prediction. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of Online Bayesian Collaborative Topic Regression (OBCTR) which is efficient and scalable for learning from data streams. Particularly, we {\it jointly} optimize the combined objective function of both PMF and LDA in an online learning fashion, in which both PMF and LDA tasks can be reinforced each other during the online learning process. Our encouraging experimental results on real-world data validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  
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Noninvasive Fetal Electrocardiography: Models, Technologies and Algorithms

Dec 24, 2021
Reza Sameni

The fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) was first recorded from the maternal abdominal surface in the early 1900s. During the past fifty years, the most advanced electronics technologies and signal processing algorithms have been used to convert noninvasive fetal electrocardiography into a reliable technology for fetal cardiac monitoring. In this chapter, the major signal processing techniques, which have been developed for the modeling, extraction and analysis of the fECG from noninvasive maternal abdominal recordings are reviewed and compared with one another in detail. The major topics of the chapter include: 1) the electrophysiology of the fECG from the signal processing viewpoint, 2) the mathematical model of the maternal volume conduction media and the waveform models of the fECG acquired from body surface leads, 3) the signal acquisition requirements, 4) model-based techniques for fECG noise and interference cancellation, including adaptive filters and semi-blind source separation techniques, and 5) recent algorithmic advances for fetal motion tracking and online fECG extraction from few number of channels.

* In Innovative Technologies and Signal Processing in Perinatal Medicine (pp. 99-146). Springer International Publishing (2020) 
  
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Continual Learning of Long Topic Sequences in Neural Information Retrieval

Jan 10, 2022
Thomas Gerald, Laure Soulier

In information retrieval (IR) systems, trends and users' interests may change over time, altering either the distribution of requests or contents to be recommended. Since neural ranking approaches heavily depend on the training data, it is crucial to understand the transfer capacity of recent IR approaches to address new domains in the long term. In this paper, we first propose a dataset based upon the MSMarco corpus aiming at modeling a long stream of topics as well as IR property-driven controlled settings. We then in-depth analyze the ability of recent neural IR models while continually learning those streams. Our empirical study highlights in which particular cases catastrophic forgetting occurs (e.g., level of similarity between tasks, peculiarities on text length, and ways of learning models) to provide future directions in terms of model design.

  
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Gaussian Determinantal Processes: a new model for directionality in data

Nov 19, 2021
Subhro Ghosh, Philippe Rigollet

Determinantal point processes (a.k.a. DPPs) have recently become popular tools for modeling the phenomenon of negative dependence, or repulsion, in data. However, our understanding of an analogue of a classical parametric statistical theory is rather limited for this class of models. In this work, we investigate a parametric family of Gaussian DPPs with a clearly interpretable effect of parametric modulation on the observed points. We show that parameter modulation impacts the observed points by introducing directionality in their repulsion structure, and the principal directions correspond to the directions of maximal (i.e. the most long ranged) dependency. This model readily yields a novel and viable alternative to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a dimension reduction tool that favors directions along which the data is most spread out. This methodological contribution is complemented by a statistical analysis of a spiked model similar to that employed for covariance matrices as a framework to study PCA. These theoretical investigations unveil intriguing questions for further examination in random matrix theory, stochastic geometry and related topics.

* Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117, no. 24 (2020): 13207-13213 
* Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Direct Submission) 
  
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Inferring the Reader: Guiding Automated Story Generation with Commonsense Reasoning

May 04, 2021
Xiangyu Peng, Siyan Li, Sarah Wiegreffe, Mark Riedl

Transformer-based language model approaches to automated story generation currently provide state-of-the-art results. However, they still suffer from plot incoherence when generating narratives over time, and critically lack basic commonsense reasoning. Furthermore, existing methods generally focus only on single-character stories, or fail to track characters at all. To improve the coherence of generated narratives and to expand the scope of character-centric narrative generation, we introduce Commonsense-inference Augmented neural StoryTelling (CAST), a framework for introducing commonsense reasoning into the generation process while modeling the interaction between multiple characters. We find that our CAST method produces significantly more coherent and on-topic two-character stories, outperforming baselines in dimensions including plot plausibility and staying on topic. We also show how the CAST method can be used to further train language models that generate more coherent stories and reduce computation cost.

  
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Measuring Conversational Productivity in Child Forensic Interviews

Jun 08, 2018
Victor Ardulov, Manoj Kumar, Shanna Williams, Thomas Lyon, Shrikanth Narayanan

Child Forensic Interviewing (FI) presents a challenge for effective information retrieval and decision making. The high stakes associated with the process demand that expert legal interviewers are able to effectively establish a channel of communication and elicit substantive knowledge from the child-client while minimizing potential for experiencing trauma. As a first step toward computationally modeling and producing quality spoken interviewing strategies and a generalized understanding of interview dynamics, we propose a novel methodology to computationally model effectiveness criteria, by applying summarization and topic modeling techniques to objectively measure and rank the responsiveness and conversational productivity of a child during FI. We score information retrieval by constructing an agenda to represent general topics of interest and measuring alignment with a given response and leveraging lexical entrainment for responsiveness. For comparison, we present our methods along with traditional metrics of evaluation and discuss the use of prior information for generating situational awareness.

  
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Disentangled Spatiotemporal Graph Generative Models

Feb 28, 2022
Yuanqi Du, Xiaojie Guo, Hengning Cao, Yanfang Ye, Liang Zhao

Spatiotemporal graph represents a crucial data structure where the nodes and edges are embedded in a geometric space and can evolve dynamically over time. Nowadays, spatiotemporal graph data is becoming increasingly popular and important, ranging from microscale (e.g. protein folding), to middle-scale (e.g. dynamic functional connectivity), to macro-scale (e.g. human mobility network). Although disentangling and understanding the correlations among spatial, temporal, and graph aspects have been a long-standing key topic in network science, they typically rely on network processing hypothesized by human knowledge. This usually fit well towards the graph properties which can be predefined, but cannot do well for the most cases, especially for many key domains where the human has yet very limited knowledge such as protein folding and biological neuronal networks. In this paper, we aim at pushing forward the modeling and understanding of spatiotemporal graphs via new disentangled deep generative models. Specifically, a new Bayesian model is proposed that factorizes spatiotemporal graphs into spatial, temporal, and graph factors as well as the factors that explain the interplay among them. A variational objective function and new mutual information thresholding algorithms driven by information bottleneck theory have been proposed to maximize the disentanglement among the factors with theoretical guarantees. Qualitative and quantitative experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model over the state-of-the-arts by up to 69.2% for graph generation and 41.5% for interpretability.

* In Thirty-Sixth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2022) Oral Presentation 
  
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Stretching Sentence-pair NLI Models to Reason over Long Documents and Clusters

Apr 15, 2022
Tal Schuster, Sihao Chen, Senaka Buthpitiya, Alex Fabrikant, Donald Metzler

Natural Language Inference (NLI) has been extensively studied by the NLP community as a framework for estimating the semantic relation between sentence pairs. While early work identified certain biases in NLI models, recent advancements in modeling and datasets demonstrated promising performance. In this work, we further explore the direct zero-shot applicability of NLI models to real applications, beyond the sentence-pair setting they were trained on. First, we analyze the robustness of these models to longer and out-of-domain inputs. Then, we develop new aggregation methods to allow operating over full documents, reaching state-of-the-art performance on the ContractNLI dataset. Interestingly, we find NLI scores to provide strong retrieval signals, leading to more relevant evidence extractions compared to common similarity-based methods. Finally, we go further and investigate whole document clusters to identify both discrepancies and consensus among sources. In a test case, we find real inconsistencies between Wikipedia pages in different languages about the same topic.

  
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Modeling Performance in Open-Domain Dialogue with PARADISE

Oct 21, 2021
Marilyn Walker, Colin Harmon, James Graupera, Davan Harrison, Steve Whittaker

There has recently been an explosion of work on spoken dialogue systems, along with an increased interest in open-domain systems that engage in casual conversations on popular topics such as movies, books and music. These systems aim to socially engage, entertain, and even empathize with their users. Since the achievement of such social goals is hard to measure, recent research has used dialogue length or human ratings as evaluation metrics, and developed methods for automatically calculating novel metrics, such as coherence, consistency, relevance and engagement. Here we develop a PARADISE model for predicting the performance of Athena, a dialogue system that has participated in thousands of conversations with real users, while competing as a finalist in the Alexa Prize. We use both user ratings and dialogue length as metrics for dialogue quality, and experiment with predicting these metrics using automatic features that are both system dependent and independent. Our goal is to learn a general objective function that can be used to optimize the dialogue choices of any Alexa Prize system in real time and evaluate its performance. Our best model for predicting user ratings gets an R$^2$ of .136 with a DistilBert model, and the best model for predicting length with system independent features gets an R$^2$ of .865, suggesting that conversation length may be a more reliable measure for automatic training of dialogue systems.

* The 12th International Workshop on Spoken Dialog System Technology, November 2021 
  
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