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"Topic Modeling": models, code, and papers

The Discrete Infinite Logistic Normal Distribution

Apr 19, 2012
John Paisley, Chong Wang, David Blei

We present the discrete infinite logistic normal distribution (DILN), a Bayesian nonparametric prior for mixed membership models. DILN is a generalization of the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) that models correlation structure between the weights of the atoms at the group level. We derive a representation of DILN as a normalized collection of gamma-distributed random variables, and study its statistical properties. We consider applications to topic modeling and derive a variational inference algorithm for approximate posterior inference. We study the empirical performance of the DILN topic model on four corpora, comparing performance with the HDP and the correlated topic model (CTM). To deal with large-scale data sets, we also develop an online inference algorithm for DILN and compare with online HDP and online LDA on the Nature magazine, which contains approximately 350,000 articles.

* This paper will appear in Bayesian Analysis. A shorter version of this paper appeared at AISTATS 2011, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA 
  
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Semi-Automatic Terminology Ontology Learning Based on Topic Modeling

Aug 05, 2017
Monika Rani, Amit Kumar Dhar, O. P. Vyas

Ontologies provide features like a common vocabulary, reusability, machine-readable content, and also allows for semantic search, facilitate agent interaction and ordering & structuring of knowledge for the Semantic Web (Web 3.0) application. However, the challenge in ontology engineering is automatic learning, i.e., the there is still a lack of fully automatic approach from a text corpus or dataset of various topics to form ontology using machine learning techniques. In this paper, two topic modeling algorithms are explored, namely LSI & SVD and Mr.LDA for learning topic ontology. The objective is to determine the statistical relationship between document and terms to build a topic ontology and ontology graph with minimum human intervention. Experimental analysis on building a topic ontology and semantic retrieving corresponding topic ontology for the user's query demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  
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Why Didn't You Listen to Me? Comparing User Control of Human-in-the-Loop Topic Models

Jun 04, 2019
Varun Kumar, Alison Smith-Renner, Leah Findlater, Kevin Seppi, Jordan Boyd-Graber

To address the lack of comparative evaluation of Human-in-the-Loop Topic Modeling (HLTM) systems, we implement and evaluate three contrasting HLTM modeling approaches using simulation experiments. These approaches extend previously proposed frameworks, including constraints and informed prior-based methods. Users should have a sense of control in HLTM systems, so we propose a control metric to measure whether refinement operations' results match users' expectations. Informed prior-based methods provide better control than constraints, but constraints yield higher quality topics.

* In proceedings of ACL 2019 
  
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Online Interactive Collaborative Filtering Using Multi-Armed Bandit with Dependent Arms

Aug 11, 2017
Qing Wang, Chunqiu Zeng, Wubai Zhou, Tao Li, Larisa Shwartz, Genady Ya. Grabarnik

Online interactive recommender systems strive to promptly suggest to consumers appropriate items (e.g., movies, news articles) according to the current context including both the consumer and item content information. However, such context information is often unavailable in practice for the recommendation, where only the users' interaction data on items can be utilized. Moreover, the lack of interaction records, especially for new users and items, worsens the performance of recommendation further. To address these issues, collaborative filtering (CF), one of the recommendation techniques relying on the interaction data only, as well as the online multi-armed bandit mechanisms, capable of achieving the balance between exploitation and exploration, are adopted in the online interactive recommendation settings, by assuming independent items (i.e., arms). Nonetheless, the assumption rarely holds in reality, since the real-world items tend to be correlated with each other (e.g., two articles with similar topics). In this paper, we study online interactive collaborative filtering problems by considering the dependencies among items. We explicitly formulate the item dependencies as the clusters on arms, where the arms within a single cluster share the similar latent topics. In light of the topic modeling techniques, we come up with a generative model to generate the items from their underlying topics. Furthermore, an efficient online algorithm based on particle learning is developed for inferring both latent parameters and states of our model. Additionally, our inferred model can be naturally integrated with existing multi-armed selection strategies in the online interactive collaborating setting. Empirical studies on two real-world applications, online recommendations of movies and news, demonstrate both the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach.

* Recommender systems; Interactive collaborative filtering; Topic modeling; Cold-start problem; Particle learning; 10 pages 
  
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HieRec: Hierarchical User Interest Modeling for Personalized News Recommendation

Jun 08, 2021
Tao Qi, Fangzhao Wu, Chuhan Wu, Peiru Yang, Yang Yu, Xing Xie, Yongfeng Huang

User interest modeling is critical for personalized news recommendation. Existing news recommendation methods usually learn a single user embedding for each user from their previous behaviors to represent their overall interest. However, user interest is usually diverse and multi-grained, which is difficult to be accurately modeled by a single user embedding. In this paper, we propose a news recommendation method with hierarchical user interest modeling, named HieRec. Instead of a single user embedding, in our method each user is represented in a hierarchical interest tree to better capture their diverse and multi-grained interest in news. We use a three-level hierarchy to represent 1) overall user interest; 2) user interest in coarse-grained topics like sports; and 3) user interest in fine-grained topics like football. Moreover, we propose a hierarchical user interest matching framework to match candidate news with different levels of user interest for more accurate user interest targeting. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets validate our method can effectively improve the performance of user modeling for personalized news recommendation.

* ACL 2021 
  
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Cooperative Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes: Superposition vs. Maximization

Jul 18, 2017
Junyu Xuan, Jie Lu, Guangquan Zhang, Richard Yi Da Xu

The cooperative hierarchical structure is a common and significant data structure observed in, or adopted by, many research areas, such as: text mining (author-paper-word) and multi-label classification (label-instance-feature). Renowned Bayesian approaches for cooperative hierarchical structure modeling are mostly based on topic models. However, these approaches suffer from a serious issue in that the number of hidden topics/factors needs to be fixed in advance and an inappropriate number may lead to overfitting or underfitting. One elegant way to resolve this issue is Bayesian nonparametric learning, but existing work in this area still cannot be applied to cooperative hierarchical structure modeling. In this paper, we propose a cooperative hierarchical Dirichlet process (CHDP) to fill this gap. Each node in a cooperative hierarchical structure is assigned a Dirichlet process to model its weights on the infinite hidden factors/topics. Together with measure inheritance from hierarchical Dirichlet process, two kinds of measure cooperation, i.e., superposition and maximization, are defined to capture the many-to-many relationships in the cooperative hierarchical structure. Furthermore, two constructive representations for CHDP, i.e., stick-breaking and international restaurant process, are designed to facilitate the model inference. Experiments on synthetic and real-world data with cooperative hierarchical structures demonstrate the properties and the ability of CHDP for cooperative hierarchical structure modeling and its potential for practical application scenarios.

  
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Guided Semi-Supervised Non-negative Matrix Factorization on Legal Documents

Jan 31, 2022
Pengyu Li, Christine Tseng, Yaxuan Zheng, Joyce A. Chew, Longxiu Huang, Benjamin Jarman, Deanna Needell

Classification and topic modeling are popular techniques in machine learning that extract information from large-scale datasets. By incorporating a priori information such as labels or important features, methods have been developed to perform classification and topic modeling tasks; however, most methods that can perform both do not allow for guidance of the topics or features. In this paper, we propose a method, namely Guided Semi-Supervised Non-negative Matrix Factorization (GSSNMF), that performs both classification and topic modeling by incorporating supervision from both pre-assigned document class labels and user-designed seed words. We test the performance of this method through its application to legal documents provided by the California Innocence Project, a nonprofit that works to free innocent convicted persons and reform the justice system. The results show that our proposed method improves both classification accuracy and topic coherence in comparison to past methods like Semi-Supervised Non-negative Matrix Factorization (SSNMF) and Guided Non-negative Matrix Factorization (Guided NMF).

* 14 pages, 4 figures 
  
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Estimating Confusions in the ASR Channel for Improved Topic-based Language Model Adaptation

Mar 21, 2013
Damianos Karakos, Mark Dredze, Sanjeev Khudanpur

Human language is a combination of elemental languages/domains/styles that change across and sometimes within discourses. Language models, which play a crucial role in speech recognizers and machine translation systems, are particularly sensitive to such changes, unless some form of adaptation takes place. One approach to speech language model adaptation is self-training, in which a language model's parameters are tuned based on automatically transcribed audio. However, transcription errors can misguide self-training, particularly in challenging settings such as conversational speech. In this work, we propose a model that considers the confusions (errors) of the ASR channel. By modeling the likely confusions in the ASR output instead of using just the 1-best, we improve self-training efficacy by obtaining a more reliable reference transcription estimate. We demonstrate improved topic-based language modeling adaptation results over both 1-best and lattice self-training using our ASR channel confusion estimates on telephone conversations.

* Technical Report 8, Human Language Technology Center of Excellence, Johns Hopkins University 
  
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Combining Temporal Information and Topic Modeling for Cross-Document Event Ordering

Jun 10, 2015
Borja Navarro-Colorado, Estela Saquete

Building unified timelines from a collection of written news articles requires cross-document event coreference resolution and temporal relation extraction. In this paper we present an approach event coreference resolution according to: a) similar temporal information, and b) similar semantic arguments. Temporal information is detected using an automatic temporal information system (TIPSem), while semantic information is represented by means of LDA Topic Modeling. The evaluation of our approach shows that it obtains the highest Micro-average F-score results in the SemEval2015 Task 4: TimeLine: Cross-Document Event Ordering (25.36\% for TrackB, 23.15\% for SubtrackB), with an improvement of up to 6\% in comparison to the other systems. However, our experiment also showed some draw-backs in the Topic Modeling approach that degrades performance of the system.

* Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015) http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/S/S15/ 
* 5 pages 
  
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A Scalable Asynchronous Distributed Algorithm for Topic Modeling

Dec 16, 2014
Hsiang-Fu Yu, Cho-Jui Hsieh, Hyokun Yun, S. V. N Vishwanathan, Inderjit S. Dhillon

Learning meaningful topic models with massive document collections which contain millions of documents and billions of tokens is challenging because of two reasons: First, one needs to deal with a large number of topics (typically in the order of thousands). Second, one needs a scalable and efficient way of distributing the computation across multiple machines. In this paper we present a novel algorithm F+Nomad LDA which simultaneously tackles both these problems. In order to handle large number of topics we use an appropriately modified Fenwick tree. This data structure allows us to sample from a multinomial distribution over $T$ items in $O(\log T)$ time. Moreover, when topic counts change the data structure can be updated in $O(\log T)$ time. In order to distribute the computation across multiple processor we present a novel asynchronous framework inspired by the Nomad algorithm of \cite{YunYuHsietal13}. We show that F+Nomad LDA significantly outperform state-of-the-art on massive problems which involve millions of documents, billions of words, and thousands of topics.

  
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