The formalism of anchor words has enabled the development of fast topic modeling algorithms with provable guarantees. In this paper, we introduce a protocol that allows users to interact with anchor words to build customized and interpretable topic models. Experimental evidence validating the usefulness of our approach is also presented.
The classification of crime into discrete categories entails a massive loss of information. Crimes emerge out of a complex mix of behaviors and situations, yet most of these details cannot be captured by singular crime type labels. This information loss impacts our ability to not only understand the causes of crime, but also how to develop optimal crime prevention strategies. We apply machine learning methods to short narrative text descriptions accompanying crime records with the goal of discovering ecologically more meaningful latent crime classes. We term these latent classes "crime topics" in reference to text-based topic modeling methods that produce them. We use topic distributions to measure clustering among formally recognized crime types. Crime topics replicate broad distinctions between violent and property crime, but also reveal nuances linked to target characteristics, situational conditions and the tools and methods of attack. Formal crime types are not discrete in topic space. Rather, crime types are distributed across a range of crime topics. Similarly, individual crime topics are distributed across a range of formal crime types. Key ecological groups include identity theft, shoplifting, burglary and theft, car crimes and vandalism, criminal threats and confidence crimes, and violent crimes. Though not a replacement for formal legal crime classifications, crime topics provide a unique window into the heterogeneous causal processes underlying crime.
Latent variable models (LVMs) are probabilistic models where some of the variables are hidden during training. A broad class of LVMshave a directed acyclic graphical structure. The directed structure suggests an intuitive causal explanation of the data generating process. For example, a latent topic model suggests that topics cause the occurrence of a token. Despite this intuitive causal interpretation, a directed acyclic latent variable model trained on data is generally insufficient for causal reasoning, as the required model parameters may not be uniquely identified. In this manuscript we demonstrate that an LVM can answer any causal query posed post-training, provided that the query can be identified from the observed variables according to the do-calculus rules. We show that causal reasoning can enhance a broad class of LVM long established in the probabilistic modeling community, and demonstrate its effectiveness on several case studies. These include a machine learning model with multiple causes where there exists a set of latent confounders and a mediator between the causes and the outcome variable, a study where the identifiable causal query cannot be estimated using the front-door or back-door criterion, a case study that captures unobserved crosstalk between two biological signaling pathways, and a COVID-19 expert system that identifies multiple causal queries.
Improving the energy efficiency of mobile applications is a topic that has gained a lot of attention recently. It has been addressed in a number of ways such as identifying energy bugs and developing a catalog of energy patterns. Previous work shows that users discuss the battery-related issues (energy inefficiency or energy consumption) of the apps in their reviews. However, there is no work that addresses the automatic extraction of battery-related issues from users' feedback. In this paper, we report on a visualization tool that is developed to empirically study machine learning algorithms and text features to automatically identify the energy consumption specific reviews with the highest accuracy. Other than the common machine learning algorithms, we utilize deep learning models with different word embeddings to compare the results. Furthermore, to help the developers extract the main topics that are discussed in the reviews, two states of the art topic modeling algorithms are applied. The visualizations of the topics represent the keywords that are extracted for each topic along with a comparison with the results of string matching. The developed web-browser based interactive visualization tool is a novel framework developed with the intention of giving the app developers insights about running time and accuracy of machine learning and deep learning models as well as extracted topics. The tool makes it easier for the developers to traverse through the extensive result set generated by the text classification and topic modeling algorithms. The dynamic-data structure used for the tool stores the baseline-results of the discussed approaches and is updated when applied on new datasets. The tool is open-sourced to replicate the research results.
As we discussed in Part I of this topic, there is a clear desire to model and comprehend human behavior. Given the popular presupposition of human reasoning as the standard for learning and decision-making, there have been significant efforts and a growing trend in research to replicate these innate human abilities in artificial systems. In Part I, we discussed learning methods which generate a model of behavior from exploration of the system and feedback based on the exhibited behavior as well as topics relating to the use of or accounting for beliefs with respect to applicable skills or mental states of others. In this work, we will continue the discussion from the perspective of methods which focus on the assumed cognitive abilities, limitations, and biases demonstrated in human reasoning. We will arrange these topics as follows (i) methods such as cognitive architectures, cognitive heuristics, and related which demonstrate assumptions of limitations on cognitive resources and how that impacts decisions and (ii) methods which generate and utilize representations of bias or uncertainty to model human decision-making or the future outcomes of decisions.
Identifying controversial posts on social media is a fundamental task for mining public sentiment, assessing the influence of events, and alleviating the polarized views. However, existing methods fail to 1) effectively incorporate the semantic information from content-related posts; 2) preserve the structural information for reply relationship modeling; 3) properly handle posts from topics dissimilar to those in the training set. To overcome the first two limitations, we propose Topic-Post-Comment Graph Convolutional Network (TPC-GCN), which integrates the information from the graph structure and content of topics, posts, and comments for post-level controversy detection. As to the third limitation, we extend our model to Disentangled TPC-GCN (DTPC-GCN), to disentangle topic-related and topic-unrelated features and then fuse dynamically. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets demonstrate that our models outperform existing methods. Analysis of the results and cases proves that our models can integrate both semantic and structural information with significant generalizability.
There is a clear desire to model and comprehend human behavior. Trends in research covering this topic show a clear assumption that many view human reasoning as the presupposed standard in artificial reasoning. As such, topics such as game theory, theory of mind, machine learning, etc. all integrate concepts which are assumed components of human reasoning. These serve as techniques to attempt to both replicate and understand the behaviors of humans. In addition, next generation autonomous and adaptive systems will largely include AI agents and humans working together as teams. To make this possible, autonomous agents will require the ability to embed practical models of human behavior, which allow them not only to replicate human models as a technique to "learn", but to to understand the actions of users and anticipate their behavior, so as to truly operate in symbiosis with them. The main objective of this paper it to provide a succinct yet systematic review of the most important approaches in two areas dealing with quantitative models of human behaviors. Specifically, we focus on (i) techniques which learn a model or policy of behavior through exploration and feedback, such as Reinforcement Learning, and (ii) directly model mechanisms of human reasoning, such as beliefs and bias, without going necessarily learning via trial-and-error.
We introduce an online tensor decomposition based approach for two latent variable modeling problems namely, (1) community detection, in which we learn the latent communities that the social actors in social networks belong to, and (2) topic modeling, in which we infer hidden topics of text articles. We consider decomposition of moment tensors using stochastic gradient descent. We conduct optimization of multilinear operations in SGD and avoid directly forming the tensors, to save computational and storage costs. We present optimized algorithm in two platforms. Our GPU-based implementation exploits the parallelism of SIMD architectures to allow for maximum speed-up by a careful optimization of storage and data transfer, whereas our CPU-based implementation uses efficient sparse matrix computations and is suitable for large sparse datasets. For the community detection problem, we demonstrate accuracy and computational efficiency on Facebook, Yelp and DBLP datasets, and for the topic modeling problem, we also demonstrate good performance on the New York Times dataset. We compare our results to the state-of-the-art algorithms such as the variational method, and report a gain of accuracy and a gain of several orders of magnitude in the execution time.
Due to the lack of publicly available resources, conversation summarization has received far less attention than text summarization. As the purpose of conversations is to exchange information between at least two interlocutors, key information about a certain topic is often scattered and spanned across multiple utterances and turns from different speakers. This phenomenon is more pronounced during spoken conversations, where speech characteristics such as backchanneling and false-starts might interrupt the topical flow. Moreover, topic diffusion and (intra-utterance) topic drift are also more common in human-to-human conversations. Such linguistic characteristics of dialogue topics make sentence-level extractive summarization approaches used in spoken documents ill-suited for summarizing conversations. Pointer-generator networks have effectively demonstrated its strength at integrating extractive and abstractive capabilities through neural modeling in text summarization. To the best of our knowledge, to date no one has adopted it for summarizing conversations. In this work, we propose a topic-aware architecture to exploit the inherent hierarchical structure in conversations to further adapt the pointer-generator model. Our approach significantly outperforms competitive baselines, achieves more efficient learning outcomes, and attains more robust performance.
Automatic text summarization aims at condensing a document to a shorter version while preserving the key information. Different from extractive summarization which simply selects text fragments from the document, abstractive summarization generates the summary in a word-by-word manner. Most current state-of-the-art (SOTA) abstractive summarization methods are based on the Transformer-based encoder-decoder architecture and focus on novel self-supervised objectives in pre-training. While these models well capture the contextual information among words in documents, little attention has been paid to incorporating global semantics to better fine-tune for the downstream abstractive summarization task. In this study, we propose a topic-aware abstractive summarization (TAAS) framework by leveraging the underlying semantic structure of documents represented by their latent topics. Specifically, TAAS seamlessly incorporates a neural topic modeling into an encoder-decoder based sequence generation procedure via attention for summarization. This design is able to learn and preserve global semantics of documents and thus makes summarization effective, which has been proved by our experiments on real-world datasets. As compared to several cutting-edge baseline methods, we show that TAAS outperforms BART, a well-recognized SOTA model, by 2%, 8%, and 12% regarding the F measure of ROUGE-1, ROUGE-2, and ROUGE-L, respectively. TAAS also achieves comparable performance to PEGASUS and ProphetNet, which is difficult to accomplish given that training PEGASUS and ProphetNet requires enormous computing capacity beyond what we used in this study.