We propose Unified Visual-Semantic Embeddings (UniVSE) for learning a joint space of visual and textual concepts. The space unifies the concepts at different levels, including objects, attributes, relations, and full scenes. A contrastive learning approach is proposed for the fine-grained alignment from only image-caption pairs. Moreover, we present an effective approach for enforcing the coverage of semantic components that appear in the sentence. We demonstrate the robustness of Unified VSE in defending text-domain adversarial attacks on cross-modal retrieval tasks. Such robustness also empowers the use of visual cues to resolve word dependencies in novel sentences.
With the increasing use of the Internet and mobile devices, social networks are becoming the most used media to communicate citizens' ideas and thoughts. This information is very useful to identify communities with common ideas based on what they publish in the network. This paper presents a method to automatically detect city communities based on machine learning techniques applied to a set of tweets from Bogot\'a's citizens. An analysis was performed in a collection of 2,634,176 tweets gathered from Twitter in a period of six months. Results show that the proposed method is an interesting tool to characterize a city population based on a machine learning methods and text analytics.
This paper takes a step towards theoretical analysis of the relationship between word embeddings and context embeddings in models such as word2vec. We start from basic probabilistic assumptions on the nature of word vectors, context vectors, and text generation. These assumptions are well supported either empirically or theoretically by the existing literature. Next, we show that under these assumptions the widely-used word-word PMI matrix is approximately a random symmetric Gaussian ensemble. This, in turn, implies that context vectors are reflections of word vectors in approximately half the dimensions. As a direct application of our result, we suggest a theoretically grounded way of tying weights in the SGNS model.
The web is loaded with textual content, and Natural Language Processing is a standout amongst the most vital fields in Machine Learning. But when data is huge simple Machine Learning algorithms are not able to handle it and that is when Deep Learning comes into play which based on Neural Networks. However since neural networks cannot process raw text, we have to change over them through some diverse strategies of word embedding. This paper demonstrates those distinctive word embedding strategies implemented on an Amazon Review Dataset, which has two sentiments to be classified: Happy and Unhappy based on numerous customer reviews. Moreover we demonstrate the distinction in accuracy with a discourse about which word embedding to apply when.
Although interactive learning puts the user into the loop, the learner remains mostly a black box for the user. Understanding the reasons behind queries and predictions is important when assessing how the learner works and, in turn, trust. Consequently, we propose the novel framework of explanatory interactive learning: in each step, the learner explains its interactive query to the user, and she queries of any active classifier for visualizing explanations of the corresponding predictions. We demonstrate that this can boost the predictive and explanatory powers of and the trust into the learned model, using text (e.g. SVMs) and image classification (e.g. neural networks) experiments as well as a user study.
Learning-based Text To Speech systems have the potential to generalize from one speaker to the next and thus require a relatively short sample of any new voice. However, this promise is currently largely unrealized. We present a method that is designed to capture a new speaker from a short untranscribed audio sample. This is done by employing an additional network that given an audio sample, places the speaker in the embedding space. This network is trained as part of the speech synthesis system using various consistency losses. Our results demonstrate a greatly improved performance on both the dataset speakers, and, more importantly, when fitting new voices, even from very short samples.
In supervised approaches for keyphrase extraction, a candidate phrase is encoded with a set of hand-crafted features and machine learning algorithms are trained to discriminate keyphrases from non-keyphrases. Although the manually-designed features have shown to work well in practice, feature engineering is a difficult process that requires expert knowledge and normally does not generalize well. In this paper, we present SurfKE, a feature learning framework that exploits the text itself to automatically discover patterns that keyphrases exhibit. Our model represents the document as a graph and automatically learns feature representation of phrases. The proposed model obtains remarkable improvements in performance over strong baselines.
In information retrieval, learning to rank constructs a machine-based ranking model which given a query, sorts the search results by their degree of relevance or importance to the query. Neural networks have been successfully applied to this problem, and in this paper, we propose an attention-based deep neural network which better incorporates different embeddings of the queries and search results with an attention-based mechanism. This model also applies a decoder mechanism to learn the ranks of the search results in a listwise fashion. The embeddings are trained with convolutional neural networks or the word2vec model. We demonstrate the performance of this model with image retrieval and text querying data sets.
The paper presents a systematic review of state-of-the-art approaches to identify patient cohorts using electronic health records. It gives a comprehensive overview of the most commonly de-tected phenotypes and its underlying data sets. Special attention is given to preprocessing of in-put data and the different modeling approaches. The literature review confirms natural language processing to be a promising approach for electronic phenotyping. However, accessibility and lack of natural language process standards for medical texts remain a challenge. Future research should develop such standards and further investigate which machine learning approaches are best suited to which type of medical data.
Shortage of available training data is holding back progress in the area of automated error detection. This paper investigates two alternative methods for artificially generating writing errors, in order to create additional resources. We propose treating error generation as a machine translation task, where grammatically correct text is translated to contain errors. In addition, we explore a system for extracting textual patterns from an annotated corpus, which can then be used to insert errors into grammatically correct sentences. Our experiments show that the inclusion of artificially generated errors significantly improves error detection accuracy on both FCE and CoNLL 2014 datasets.