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"Text": models, code, and papers

Stacked Cross Attention for Image-Text Matching

Jul 23, 2018
Kuang-Huei Lee, Xi Chen, Gang Hua, Houdong Hu, Xiaodong He

In this paper, we study the problem of image-text matching. Inferring the latent semantic alignment between objects or other salient stuff (e.g. snow, sky, lawn) and the corresponding words in sentences allows to capture fine-grained interplay between vision and language, and makes image-text matching more interpretable. Prior work either simply aggregates the similarity of all possible pairs of regions and words without attending differentially to more and less important words or regions, or uses a multi-step attentional process to capture limited number of semantic alignments which is less interpretable. In this paper, we present Stacked Cross Attention to discover the full latent alignments using both image regions and words in a sentence as context and infer image-text similarity. Our approach achieves the state-of-the-art results on the MS-COCO and Flickr30K datasets. On Flickr30K, our approach outperforms the current best methods by 22.1% relatively in text retrieval from image query, and 18.2% relatively in image retrieval with text query (based on Re[email protected]). On MS-COCO, our approach improves sentence retrieval by 17.8% relatively and image retrieval by 16.6% relatively (based on [email protected] using the 5K test set). Code has been made available at: https://github.com/kuanghuei/SCAN.

* Accepted to ECCV 2018 

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AOBTM: Adaptive Online Biterm Topic Modeling for Version Sensitive Short-texts Analysis

Sep 13, 2020
Mohammad Abdul Hadi, Fatemeh H Fard

Analysis of mobile app reviews has shown its important role in requirement engineering, software maintenance and evolution of mobile apps. Mobile app developers check their users' reviews frequently to clarify the issues experienced by users or capture the new issues that are introduced due to a recent app update. App reviews have a dynamic nature and their discussed topics change over time. The changes in the topics among collected reviews for different versions of an app can reveal important issues about the app update. A main technique in this analysis is using topic modeling algorithms. However, app reviews are short texts and it is challenging to unveil their latent topics over time. Conventional topic models suffer from the sparsity of word co-occurrence patterns while inferring topics for short texts. Furthermore, these algorithms cannot capture topics over numerous consecutive time-slices. Online topic modeling algorithms speed up the inference of topic models for the texts collected in the latest time-slice by saving a fraction of data from the previous time-slice. But these algorithms do not analyze the statistical-data of all the previous time-slices, which can confer contributions to the topic distribution of the current time-slice. We propose Adaptive Online Biterm Topic Model (AOBTM) to model topics in short texts adaptively. AOBTM alleviates the sparsity problem in short-texts and considers the statistical-data for an optimal number of previous time-slices. We also propose parallel algorithms to automatically determine the optimal number of topics and the best number of previous versions that should be considered in topic inference phase. Automatic evaluation on collections of app reviews and real-world short text datasets confirm that AOBTM can find more coherent topics and outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines.

* 13 pages, 7 figures, 7 tables 

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Computational analyses of the topics, sentiments, literariness, creativity and beauty of texts in a large Corpus of English Literature

Jan 12, 2022
Arthur M. Jacobs, Annette Kinder

The Gutenberg Literary English Corpus (GLEC, Jacobs, 2018a) provides a rich source of textual data for research in digital humanities, computational linguistics or neurocognitive poetics. In this study we address differences among the different literature categories in GLEC, as well as differences between authors. We report the results of three studies providing i) topic and sentiment analyses for six text categories of GLEC (i.e., children and youth, essays, novels, plays, poems, stories) and its >100 authors, ii) novel measures of semantic complexity as indices of the literariness, creativity and book beauty of the works in GLEC (e.g., Jane Austen's six novels), and iii) two experiments on text classification and authorship recognition using novel features of semantic complexity. The data on two novel measures estimating a text's literariness, intratextual variance and stepwise distance (van Cranenburgh et al., 2019) revealed that plays are the most literary texts in GLEC, followed by poems and novels. Computation of a novel index of text creativity (Gray et al., 2016) revealed poems and plays as the most creative categories with the most creative authors all being poets (Milton, Pope, Keats, Byron, or Wordsworth). We also computed a novel index of perceived beauty of verbal art (Kintsch, 2012) for the works in GLEC and predict that Emma is the theoretically most beautiful of Austen's novels. Finally, we demonstrate that these novel measures of semantic complexity are important features for text classification and authorship recognition with overall predictive accuracies in the range of .75 to .97. Our data pave the way for future computational and empirical studies of literature or experiments in reading psychology and offer multiple baselines and benchmarks for analysing and validating other book corpora.

* 37 pages, 12 figures 

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Real-time Scene Text Detection with Differentiable Binarization

Dec 03, 2019
Minghui Liao, Zhaoyi Wan, Cong Yao, Kai Chen, Xiang Bai

Recently, segmentation-based methods are quite popular in scene text detection, as the segmentation results can more accurately describe scene text of various shapes such as curve text. However, the post-processing of binarization is essential for segmentation-based detection, which converts probability maps produced by a segmentation method into bounding boxes/regions of text. In this paper, we propose a module named Differentiable Binarization (DB), which can perform the binarization process in a segmentation network. Optimized along with a DB module, a segmentation network can adaptively set the thresholds for binarization, which not only simplifies the post-processing but also enhances the performance of text detection. Based on a simple segmentation network, we validate the performance improvements of DB on five benchmark datasets, which consistently achieves state-of-the-art results, in terms of both detection accuracy and speed. In particular, with a light-weight backbone, the performance improvements by DB are significant so that we can look for an ideal tradeoff between detection accuracy and efficiency. Specifically, with a backbone of ResNet-18, our detector achieves an F-measure of 82.8, running at 62 FPS, on the MSRA-TD500 dataset. Code is available at: https://github.com/MhLiao/DB

* Accepted to AAAI 2020 

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Sparse Text Generation

Apr 06, 2020
Pedro Henrique Martins, Zita Marinho, André F. T. Martins

Current state-of-the-art text generators build on powerful language models such as GPT-2, which have impressive performance. However, to avoid degenerate text, they require sampling from a modified softmax, via temperature parameters or ad-hoc truncation techniques, as in top-$k$ or nucleus sampling. This creates a mismatch between training and testing conditions. In this paper, we use the recently introduced entmax transformation to train and sample from a natively sparse language model, avoiding this mismatch. The result is a text generator with favorable performance in terms of fluency and consistency, fewer repetitions, and n-gram diversity closer to human text. In order to evaluate our model, we propose three new metrics that are tailored for comparing sparse or truncated distributions: $\epsilon$-perplexity, sparsemax score, and Jensen-Shannon divergence. Human-evaluated experiments in story completion and dialogue generation show that entmax sampling leads to more engaging and coherent stories and conversations.


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TextKD-GAN: Text Generation using KnowledgeDistillation and Generative Adversarial Networks

Apr 23, 2019
Md. Akmal Haidar, Mehdi Rezagholizadeh

Text generation is of particular interest in many NLP applications such as machine translation, language modeling, and text summarization. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) achieved a remarkable success in high quality image generation in computer vision,and recently, GANs have gained lots of interest from the NLP community as well. However, achieving similar success in NLP would be more challenging due to the discrete nature of text. In this work, we introduce a method using knowledge distillation to effectively exploit GAN setup for text generation. We demonstrate how autoencoders (AEs) can be used for providing a continuous representation of sentences, which is a smooth representation that assign non-zero probabilities to more than one word. We distill this representation to train the generator to synthesize similar smooth representations. We perform a number of experiments to validate our idea using different datasets and show that our proposed approach yields better performance in terms of the BLEU score and Jensen-Shannon distance (JSD) measure compared to traditional GAN-based text generation approaches without pre-training.

* 32nd Canadian Conference on Artificial Intelligence 2019 
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1904.07293 

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Point-of-Interest Type Prediction using Text and Images

Sep 01, 2021
Danae Sánchez Villegas, Nikolaos Aletras

Point-of-interest (POI) type prediction is the task of inferring the type of a place from where a social media post was shared. Inferring a POI's type is useful for studies in computational social science including sociolinguistics, geosemiotics, and cultural geography, and has applications in geosocial networking technologies such as recommendation and visualization systems. Prior efforts in POI type prediction focus solely on text, without taking visual information into account. However in reality, the variety of modalities, as well as their semiotic relationships with one another, shape communication and interactions in social media. This paper presents a study on POI type prediction using multimodal information from text and images available at posting time. For that purpose, we enrich a currently available data set for POI type prediction with the images that accompany the text messages. Our proposed method extracts relevant information from each modality to effectively capture interactions between text and image achieving a macro F1 of 47.21 across eight categories significantly outperforming the state-of-the-art method for POI type prediction based on text-only methods. Finally, we provide a detailed analysis to shed light on cross-modal interactions and the limitations of our best performing model.

* Accepted at EMNLP 2021 

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LEWIS: Levenshtein Editing for Unsupervised Text Style Transfer

May 18, 2021
Machel Reid, Victor Zhong

Many types of text style transfer can be achieved with only small, precise edits (e.g. sentiment transfer from I had a terrible time... to I had a great time...). We propose a coarse-to-fine editor for style transfer that transforms text using Levenshtein edit operations (e.g. insert, replace, delete). Unlike prior single-span edit methods, our method concurrently edits multiple spans in the source text. To train without parallel style text pairs (e.g. pairs of +/- sentiment statements), we propose an unsupervised data synthesis procedure. We first convert text to style-agnostic templates using style classifier attention (e.g. I had a SLOT time...), then fill in slots in these templates using fine-tuned pretrained language models. Our method outperforms existing generation and editing style transfer methods on sentiment (Yelp, Amazon) and politeness (Polite) transfer. In particular, multi-span editing achieves higher performance and more diverse output than single-span editing. Moreover, compared to previous methods on unsupervised data synthesis, our method results in higher quality parallel style pairs and improves model performance.

* ACL-IJCNLP 2021 (Findings) 

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JaTeCS an open-source JAva TExt Categorization System

Jun 21, 2017
Andrea Esuli, Tiziano Fagni, Alejandro Moreo Fernandez

JaTeCS is an open source Java library that supports research on automatic text categorization and other related problems, such as ordinal regression and quantification, which are of special interest in opinion mining applications. It covers all the steps of an experimental activity, from reading the corpus to the evaluation of the experimental results. As JaTeCS is focused on text as the main input data, it provides the user with many text-dedicated tools, e.g.: data readers for many formats, including the most commonly used text corpora and lexical resources, natural language processing tools, multi-language support, methods for feature selection and weighting, the implementation of many machine learning algorithms as well as wrappers for well-known external software (e.g., SVM_light) which enable their full control from code. JaTeCS support its expansion by abstracting through interfaces many of the typical tools and procedures used in text processing tasks. The library also provides a number of "template" implementations of typical experimental setups (e.g., train-test, k-fold validation, grid-search optimization, randomized runs) which enable fast realization of experiments just by connecting the templates with data readers, learning algorithms and evaluation measures.


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