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PHICON: Improving Generalization of Clinical Text De-identification Models via Data Augmentation

Oct 11, 2020
Xiang Yue, Shuang Zhou

De-identification is the task of identifying protected health information (PHI) in the clinical text. Existing neural de-identification models often fail to generalize to a new dataset. We propose a simple yet effective data augmentation method PHICON to alleviate the generalization issue. PHICON consists of PHI augmentation and Context augmentation, which creates augmented training corpora by replacing PHI entities with named-entities sampled from external sources, and by changing background context with synonym replacement or random word insertion, respectively. Experimental results on the i2b2 2006 and 2014 de-identification challenge datasets show that PHICON can help three selected de-identification models boost F1-score (by at most 8.6%) on cross-dataset test setting. We also discuss how much augmentation to use and how each augmentation method influences the performance.

* Accepted by The 3rd ClinicalNLP Workshop at EMNLP'20 

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Finding ReMO (Related Memory Object): A Simple Neural Architecture for Text based Reasoning

Jan 26, 2018
Jihyung Moon, Hyochang Yang, Sungzoon Cho

To solve the text-based question and answering task that requires relational reasoning, it is necessary to memorize a large amount of information and find out the question relevant information from the memory. Most approaches were based on external memory and four components proposed by Memory Network. The distinctive component among them was the way of finding the necessary information and it contributes to the performance. Recently, a simple but powerful neural network module for reasoning called Relation Network (RN) has been introduced. We analyzed RN from the view of Memory Network, and realized that its MLP component is able to reveal the complicate relation between question and object pair. Motivated from it, we introduce which uses MLP to find out relevant information on Memory Network architecture. It shows new state-of-the-art results in jointly trained bAbI-10k story-based question answering tasks and bAbI dialog-based question answering tasks.

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Understanding Image and Text Simultaneously: a Dual Vision-Language Machine Comprehension Task

Dec 22, 2016
Nan Ding, Sebastian Goodman, Fei Sha, Radu Soricut

We introduce a new multi-modal task for computer systems, posed as a combined vision-language comprehension challenge: identifying the most suitable text describing a scene, given several similar options. Accomplishing the task entails demonstrating comprehension beyond just recognizing "keywords" (or key-phrases) and their corresponding visual concepts. Instead, it requires an alignment between the representations of the two modalities that achieves a visually-grounded "understanding" of various linguistic elements and their dependencies. This new task also admits an easy-to-compute and well-studied metric: the accuracy in detecting the true target among the decoys. The paper makes several contributions: an effective and extensible mechanism for generating decoys from (human-created) image captions; an instance of applying this mechanism, yielding a large-scale machine comprehension dataset (based on the COCO images and captions) that we make publicly available; human evaluation results on this dataset, informing a performance upper-bound; and several baseline and competitive learning approaches that illustrate the utility of the proposed task and dataset in advancing both image and language comprehension. We also show that, in a multi-task learning setting, the performance on the proposed task is positively correlated with the end-to-end task of image captioning.

* 11 pages 

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Enhancing Handwritten Text Recognition with N-gram sequence decomposition and Multitask Learning

Dec 28, 2020
Vasiliki Tassopoulou, George Retsinas, Petros Maragos

Current state-of-the-art approaches in the field of Handwritten Text Recognition are predominately single task with unigram, character level target units. In our work, we utilize a Multi-task Learning scheme, training the model to perform decompositions of the target sequence with target units of different granularity, from fine to coarse. We consider this method as a way to utilize n-gram information, implicitly, in the training process, while the final recognition is performed using only the unigram output. % in order to highlight the difference of the internal Unigram decoding of such a multi-task approach highlights the capability of the learned internal representations, imposed by the different n-grams at the training step. We select n-grams as our target units and we experiment from unigrams to fourgrams, namely subword level granularities. These multiple decompositions are learned from the network with task-specific CTC losses. Concerning network architectures, we propose two alternatives, namely the Hierarchical and the Block Multi-task. Overall, our proposed model, even though evaluated only on the unigram task, outperforms its counterpart single-task by absolute 2.52\% WER and 1.02\% CER, in the greedy decoding, without any computational overhead during inference, hinting towards successfully imposing an implicit language model.

* ICPR 2020 

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Stable Style Transformer: Delete and Generate Approach with Encoder-Decoder for Text Style Transfer

May 25, 2020
Joosung Lee

Text style transfer is the task that generates a sentence by preserving the content of the input sentence and transferring the style. Most existing studies are progressing on non-parallel datasets because parallel datasets are limited and hard to construct. In this work, we introduce a method that follows two stages in non-parallel datasets. The first stage is to delete attribute markers of a sentence directly through the classifier. The second stage is to generate the transferred sentence by combining the content tokens and the target style. We evaluate systems on two benchmark datasets. Transferred sentences are evaluated in terms of context, style, fluency, and semantic. These evaluation metrics are used to determine a stable system. Only robust systems in all evaluation metrics are suitable for use in real applications. Many previous systems are difficult to use in certain situations because they are unstable in some evaluation metrics. However, our system is stable in all evaluation metrics and has results comparable to other models.

* 9 pages, 3 figures 

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SkipFlow: Incorporating Neural Coherence Features for End-to-End Automatic Text Scoring

Nov 14, 2017
Yi Tay, Minh C. Phan, Luu Anh Tuan, Siu Cheung Hui

Deep learning has demonstrated tremendous potential for Automatic Text Scoring (ATS) tasks. In this paper, we describe a new neural architecture that enhances vanilla neural network models with auxiliary neural coherence features. Our new method proposes a new \textsc{SkipFlow} mechanism that models relationships between snapshots of the hidden representations of a long short-term memory (LSTM) network as it reads. Subsequently, the semantic relationships between multiple snapshots are used as auxiliary features for prediction. This has two main benefits. Firstly, essays are typically long sequences and therefore the memorization capability of the LSTM network may be insufficient. Implicit access to multiple snapshots can alleviate this problem by acting as a protection against vanishing gradients. The parameters of the \textsc{SkipFlow} mechanism also acts as an auxiliary memory. Secondly, modeling relationships between multiple positions allows our model to learn features that represent and approximate textual coherence. In our model, we call this \textit{neural coherence} features. Overall, we present a unified deep learning architecture that generates neural coherence features as it reads in an end-to-end fashion. Our approach demonstrates state-of-the-art performance on the benchmark ASAP dataset, outperforming not only feature engineering baselines but also other deep learning models.

* Accepted to AAAI 2018 

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EditSpeech: A Text Based Speech Editing System Using Partial Inference and Bidirectional Fusion

Jul 04, 2021
Daxin Tan, Liqun Deng, Yu Ting Yeung, Xin Jiang, Xiao Chen, Tan Lee

This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a speech editing system, named EditSpeech, which allows a user to perform deletion, insertion and replacement of words in a given speech utterance, without causing audible degradation in speech quality and naturalness. The EditSpeech system is developed upon a neural text-to-speech (NTTS) synthesis framework. Partial inference and bidirectional fusion are proposed to effectively incorporate the contextual information related to the edited region and achieve smooth transition at both left and right boundaries. Distortion introduced to the unmodified parts of the utterance is alleviated. The EditSpeech system is developed and evaluated on English and Chinese in multi-speaker scenarios. Objective and subjective evaluation demonstrate that EditSpeech outperforms a few baseline systems in terms of low spectral distortion and preferred speech quality. Audio samples are available online for demonstration .

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Leveraging Declarative Knowledge in Text and First-Order Logic for Fine-Grained Propaganda Detection

Apr 29, 2020
Ruize Wang, Duyu Tang, Nan Duan, Wanjun Zhong, Zhongyu Wei, Xuanjing Huang, Daxin Jiang, Ming Zhou

We study the detection of propagandistic text fragments in news articles. Instead of merely learning from input-output datapoints in training data, we introduce an approach to inject declarative knowledge of fine-grained propaganda techniques. We leverage declarative knowledge expressed in both natural language and first-order logic. The former refers to the literal definition of each propaganda technique, which is utilized to get class representations for regularizing the model parameters. The latter refers to logical consistency between coarse- and fine- grained predictions, which is used to regularize the training process with propositional Boolean expressions. We conduct experiments on Propaganda Techniques Corpus, a large manually annotated dataset for fine-grained propaganda detection. Experiments show that our method achieves superior performance, demonstrating that injecting declarative knowledge expressed in both natural language and first-order logic can help the model to make more accurate predictions.

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Long-tailed Extreme Multi-label Text Classification with Generated Pseudo Label Descriptions

Apr 02, 2022
Ruohong Zhang, Yau-Shian Wang, Yiming Yang, Donghan Yu, Tom Vu, Likun Lei

Extreme Multi-label Text Classification (XMTC) has been a tough challenge in machine learning research and applications due to the sheer sizes of the label spaces and the severe data scarce problem associated with the long tail of rare labels in highly skewed distributions. This paper addresses the challenge of tail label prediction by proposing a novel approach, which combines the effectiveness of a trained bag-of-words (BoW) classifier in generating informative label descriptions under severe data scarce conditions, and the power of neural embedding based retrieval models in mapping input documents (as queries) to relevant label descriptions. The proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on XMTC benchmark datasets and significantly outperforms the best methods so far in the tail label prediction. We also provide a theoretical analysis for relating the BoW and neural models w.r.t. performance lower bound.

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SummAE: Zero-Shot Abstractive Text Summarization using Length-Agnostic Auto-Encoders

Oct 02, 2019
Peter J. Liu, Yu-An Chung, Jie Ren

We propose an end-to-end neural model for zero-shot abstractive text summarization of paragraphs, and introduce a benchmark task, ROCSumm, based on ROCStories, a subset for which we collected human summaries. In this task, five-sentence stories (paragraphs) are summarized with one sentence, using human summaries only for evaluation. We show results for extractive and human baselines to demonstrate a large abstractive gap in performance. Our model, SummAE, consists of a denoising auto-encoder that embeds sentences and paragraphs in a common space, from which either can be decoded. Summaries for paragraphs are generated by decoding a sentence from the paragraph representations. We find that traditional sequence-to-sequence auto-encoders fail to produce good summaries and describe how specific architectural choices and pre-training techniques can significantly improve performance, outperforming extractive baselines. The data, training, evaluation code, and best model weights are open-sourced.

* first two authors contributed equally 

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