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On Horizontal and Vertical Separation in Hierarchical Text Classification

Sep 02, 2016
Mostafa Dehghani, Hosein Azarbonyad, Jaap Kamps, Maarten Marx

Hierarchy is a common and effective way of organizing data and representing their relationships at different levels of abstraction. However, hierarchical data dependencies cause difficulties in the estimation of "separable" models that can distinguish between the entities in the hierarchy. Extracting separable models of hierarchical entities requires us to take their relative position into account and to consider the different types of dependencies in the hierarchy. In this paper, we present an investigation of the effect of separability in text-based entity classification and argue that in hierarchical classification, a separation property should be established between entities not only in the same layer, but also in different layers. Our main findings are the followings. First, we analyse the importance of separability on the data representation in the task of classification and based on that, we introduce a "Strong Separation Principle" for optimizing expected effectiveness of classifiers decision based on separation property. Second, we present Hierarchical Significant Words Language Models (HSWLM) which capture all, and only, the essential features of hierarchical entities according to their relative position in the hierarchy resulting in horizontally and vertically separable models. Third, we validate our claims on real-world data and demonstrate that how HSWLM improves the accuracy of classification and how it provides transferable models over time. Although discussions in this paper focus on the classification problem, the models are applicable to any information access tasks on data that has, or can be mapped to, a hierarchical structure.

* Full paper (10 pages) accepted for publication in proceedings of ACM SIGIR International Conference on the Theory of Information Retrieval (ICTIR'16) 

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An Empirical Study of Extrapolation in Text Generation with Scalar Control

Apr 16, 2021
Aashi Jain, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick

We conduct an empirical evaluation of extrapolation performance when conditioning on scalar control inputs like desired output length, desired edit from an input sentence, and desired sentiment across three text generation tasks. Specifically, we examine a zero-shot setting where models are asked to generalize to ranges of control values not seen during training. We focus on evaluating popular embedding methods for scalar inputs, including both learnable and sinusoidal embeddings, as well as simpler approaches. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that the simplest strategy of using scalar inputs directly, without further encoding, most reliably allows for successful extrapolation.

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NUBIA: NeUral Based Interchangeability Assessor for Text Generation

May 01, 2020
Hassan Kane, Muhammed Yusuf Kocyigit, Ali Abdalla, Pelkins Ajanoh, Mohamed Coulibali

We present NUBIA, a methodology to build automatic evaluation metrics for text generation using only machine learning models as core components. A typical NUBIA model is composed of three modules: a neural feature extractor, an aggregator and a calibrator. We demonstrate an implementation of NUBIA which outperforms metrics currently used to evaluate machine translation, summaries and slightly exceeds/matches state of the art metrics on correlation with human judgement on the WMT segment-level Direct Assessment task, sentence-level ranking and image captioning evaluation. The model implemented is modular, explainable and set to continuously improve over time.

* 8 pages, 5 tables, and 2 figures 

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Content Enhanced BERT-based Text-to-SQL Generation

Nov 27, 2019
Tong Guo, Huilin Gao

We present a simple methods to leverage the table content for the BERT-based model to solve the text-to-SQL problem. Based on the observation that some of the table content match some words in question string and some of the table header also match some words in question string, we encode two addition feature vector for the deep model. Our methods also benefit the model inference in testing time as the tables are almost the same in training and testing time. We test our model on the WikiSQL dataset and outperform the BERT-based baseline by 3.7% in logic form and 3.7% in execution accuracy and achieve state-of-the-art.

* working in progress 

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Suspicious News Detection Using Micro Blog Text

Oct 27, 2018
Tsubasa Tagami, Hiroki Ouchi, Hiroki Asano, Kazuaki Hanawa, Kaori Uchiyama, Kaito Suzuki, Kentaro Inui, Atsushi Komiya, Atsuo Fujimura, Hitofumi Yanai, Ryo Yamashita, Akinori Machino

We present a new task, suspicious news detection using micro blog text. This task aims to support human experts to detect suspicious news articles to be verified, which is costly but a crucial step before verifying the truthfulness of the articles. Specifically, in this task, given a set of posts on SNS referring to a news article, the goal is to judge whether the article is to be verified or not. For this task, we create a publicly available dataset in Japanese and provide benchmark results by using several basic machine learning techniques. Experimental results show that our models can reduce the cost of manual fact-checking process.

* 10 pages; PACLIC 2018 

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Macroscopic Control of Text Generation for Image Captioning

Jan 20, 2021
Zhangzi Zhu, Tianlei Wang, Hong Qu

Despite the fact that image captioning models have been able to generate impressive descriptions for a given image, challenges remain: (1) the controllability and diversity of existing models are still far from satisfactory; (2) models sometimes may produce extremely poor-quality captions. In this paper, two novel methods are introduced to solve the problems respectively. Specifically, for the former problem, we introduce a control signal which can control the macroscopic sentence attributes, such as sentence quality, sentence length, sentence tense and number of nouns etc. With such a control signal, the controllability and diversity of existing captioning models are enhanced. For the latter problem, we innovatively propose a strategy that an image-text matching model is trained to measure the quality of sentences generated in both forward and backward directions and finally choose the better one. As a result, this strategy can effectively reduce the proportion of poorquality sentences. Our proposed methods can be easily applie on most image captioning models to improve their overall performance. Based on the Up-Down model, the experimental results show that our methods achieve BLEU- 4/CIDEr/SPICE scores of 37.5/120.3/21.5 on MSCOCO Karpathy test split with cross-entropy training, which surpass the results of other state-of-the-art methods trained by cross-entropy loss.

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Spurious Correlations in Reference-Free Evaluation of Text Generation

Apr 21, 2022
Esin Durmus, Faisal Ladhak, Tatsunori Hashimoto

Model-based, reference-free evaluation metrics have been proposed as a fast and cost-effective approach to evaluate Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems. Despite promising recent results, we find evidence that reference-free evaluation metrics of summarization and dialog generation may be relying on spurious correlations with measures such as word overlap, perplexity, and length. We further observe that for text summarization, these metrics have high error rates when ranking current state-of-the-art abstractive summarization systems. We demonstrate that these errors can be mitigated by explicitly designing evaluation metrics to avoid spurious features in reference-free evaluation.

* Published in ACL 2022 main conference 

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