The dominant approach to unsupervised "style transfer" in text is based on the idea of learning a latent representation, which is independent of the attributes specifying its "style". In this paper, we show that this condition is not necessary and is not always met in practice, even with domain adversarial training that explicitly aims at learning such disentangled representations. We thus propose a new model that controls several factors of variation in textual data where this condition on disentanglement is replaced with a simpler mechanism based on back-translation. Our method allows control over multiple attributes, like gender, sentiment, product type, etc., and a more fine-grained control on the trade-off between content preservation and change of style with a pooling operator in the latent space. Our experiments demonstrate that the fully entangled model produces better generations, even when tested on new and more challenging benchmarks comprising reviews with multiple sentences and multiple attributes.
In the following paper the authors present a GAN-type model and the most important stages of its development for the task of emotion recognition in text. In particular, we propose an approach for generating a synthetic dataset of all possible emotions combinations based on manually labelled incomplete data.
Transformation of Machine Learning (ML) from a boutique science to a generally accepted technology has increased importance of reproduction and transportability of ML studies. In the current work, we investigate how corpus characteristics of textual data sets correspond to text classification results. We work with two data sets gathered from sub-forums of an online health-related forum. Our empirical results are obtained for a multi-class sentiment analysis application.
This article offers an empirical exploration on the use of character-level convolutional networks (ConvNets) for text classification. We constructed several large-scale datasets to show that character-level convolutional networks could achieve state-of-the-art or competitive results. Comparisons are offered against traditional models such as bag of words, n-grams and their TFIDF variants, and deep learning models such as word-based ConvNets and recurrent neural networks.
In this work, we study the problem of word-level confidence calibration for scene-text recognition (STR). Although the topic of confidence calibration has been an active research area for the last several decades, the case of structured and sequence prediction calibration has been scarcely explored. We analyze several recent STR methods and show that they are consistently overconfident. We then focus on the calibration of STR models on the word rather than the character level. In particular, we demonstrate that for attention based decoders, calibration of individual character predictions increases word-level calibration error compared to an uncalibrated model. In addition, we apply existing calibration methodologies as well as new sequence-based extensions to numerous STR models, demonstrating reduced calibration error by up to a factor of nearly 7. Finally, we show consistently improved accuracy results by applying our proposed sequence calibration method as a preprocessing step to beam-search.
This paper proposes a novel neural model for the understudied task of generating text from keywords. The model takes as input a set of un-ordered keywords, and part-of-speech (POS) based template instructions. This makes it ideal for surface realization in any NLG setup. The framework is based on the encode-attend-decode paradigm, where keywords and templates are encoded first, and the decoder judiciously attends over the contexts derived from the encoded keywords and templates to generate the sentences. Training exploits weak supervision, as the model trains on a large amount of labeled data with keywords and POS based templates prepared through completely automatic means. Qualitative and quantitative performance analyses on publicly available test-data in various domains reveal our system's superiority over baselines, built using state-of-the-art neural machine translation and controllable transfer techniques. Our approach is indifferent to the order of input keywords.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have proven hugely successful in variety of applications of image processing. However, generative adversarial networks for handwriting is relatively rare somehow because of difficulty of handling sequential handwriting data by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). In this paper, we propose a handwriting generative adversarial network framework (HWGANs) for synthesizing handwritten stroke data. The main features of the new framework include: (i) A discriminator consists of an integrated CNN-Long-Short-Term- Memory (LSTM) based feature extraction with Path Signature Features (PSF) as input and a Feedforward Neural Network (FNN) based binary classifier; (ii) A recurrent latent variable model as generator for synthesizing sequential handwritten data. The numerical experiments show the effectivity of the new model. Moreover, comparing with sole handwriting generator, the HWGANs synthesize more natural and realistic handwritten text.
We present a deterministic algorithm for Russian inflection. This algorithm is implemented in a publicly available web-service www.passare.ru which provides functions for inflection of single words, word matching and synthesis of grammatically correct Russian text. The inflectional functions have been tested against the annotated corpus of Russian language OpenCorpora.
We present a meta-learning approach for adaptive text-to-speech (TTS) with few data. During training, we learn a multi-speaker model using a shared conditional WaveNet core and independent learned embeddings for each speaker. The aim of training is not to produce a neural network with fixed weights, which is then deployed as a TTS system. Instead, the aim is to produce a network that requires few data at deployment time to rapidly adapt to new speakers. We introduce and benchmark three strategies: (i) learning the speaker embedding while keeping the WaveNet core fixed, (ii) fine-tuning the entire architecture with stochastic gradient descent, and (iii) predicting the speaker embedding with a trained neural network encoder. The experiments show that these approaches are successful at adapting the multi-speaker neural network to new speakers, obtaining state-of-the-art results in both sample naturalness and voice similarity with merely a few minutes of audio data from new speakers.
We introduce WIQA, the first large-scale dataset of "What if..." questions over procedural text. WIQA contains three parts: a collection of paragraphs each describing a process, e.g., beach erosion; a set of crowdsourced influence graphs for each paragraph, describing how one change affects another; and a large (40k) collection of "What if...?" multiple-choice questions derived from the graphs. For example, given a paragraph about beach erosion, would stormy weather result in more or less erosion (or have no effect)? The task is to answer the questions, given their associated paragraph. WIQA contains three kinds of questions: perturbations to steps mentioned in the paragraph; external (out-of-paragraph) perturbations requiring commonsense knowledge; and irrelevant (no effect) perturbations. We find that state-of-the-art models achieve 73.8% accuracy, well below the human performance of 96.3%. We analyze the challenges, in particular tracking chains of influences, and present the dataset as an open challenge to the community.