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Investigating Code-Mixed Modern Standard Arabic-Egyptian to English Machine Translation

May 28, 2021
El Moatez Billah Nagoudi, AbdelRahim Elmadany, Muhammad Abdul-Mageed

Recent progress in neural machine translation (NMT) has made it possible to translate successfully between monolingual language pairs where large parallel data exist, with pre-trained models improving performance even further. Although there exists work on translating in code-mixed settings (where one of the pairs includes text from two or more languages), it is still unclear what recent success in NMT and language modeling exactly means for translating code-mixed text. We investigate one such context, namely MT from code-mixed Modern Standard Arabic and Egyptian Arabic (MSAEA) into English. We develop models under different conditions, employing both (i) standard end-to-end sequence-to-sequence (S2S) Transformers trained from scratch and (ii) pre-trained S2S language models (LMs). We are able to acquire reasonable performance using only MSA-EN parallel data with S2S models trained from scratch. We also find LMs fine-tuned on data from various Arabic dialects to help the MSAEA-EN task. Our work is in the context of the Shared Task on Machine Translation in Code-Switching. Our best model achieves $\bf25.72$ BLEU, placing us first on the official shared task evaluation for MSAEA-EN.

* CALCS2021, colocated with NAACL-2021 

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NukeLM: Pre-Trained and Fine-Tuned Language Models for the Nuclear and Energy Domains

May 25, 2021
Lee Burke, Karl Pazdernik, Daniel Fortin, Benjamin Wilson, Rustam Goychayev, John Mattingly

Natural language processing (NLP) tasks (text classification, named entity recognition, etc.) have seen revolutionary improvements over the last few years. This is due to language models such as BERT that achieve deep knowledge transfer by using a large pre-trained model, then fine-tuning the model on specific tasks. The BERT architecture has shown even better performance on domain-specific tasks when the model is pre-trained using domain-relevant texts. Inspired by these recent advancements, we have developed NukeLM, a nuclear-domain language model pre-trained on 1.5 million abstracts from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) database. This NukeLM model is then fine-tuned for the classification of research articles into either binary classes (related to the nuclear fuel cycle [NFC] or not) or multiple categories related to the subject of the article. We show that continued pre-training of a BERT-style architecture prior to fine-tuning yields greater performance on both article classification tasks. This information is critical for properly triaging manuscripts, a necessary task for better understanding citation networks that publish in the nuclear space, and for uncovering new areas of research in the nuclear (or nuclear-relevant) domains.

* 11 pages, 2 figures 

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Mondegreen: A Post-Processing Solution to Speech Recognition Error Correction for Voice Search Queries

May 20, 2021
Sukhdeep S. Sodhi, Ellie Ka-In Chio, Ambarish Jash, Santiago Ontañón, Ajit Apte, Ankit Kumar, Ayooluwakunmi Jeje, Dima Kuzmin, Harry Fung, Heng-Tze Cheng, Jon Effrat, Tarush Bali, Nitin Jindal, Pei Cao, Sarvjeet Singh, Senqiang Zhou, Tameen Khan, Amol Wankhede, Moustafa Alzantot, Allen Wu, Tushar Chandra

As more and more online search queries come from voice, automatic speech recognition becomes a key component to deliver relevant search results. Errors introduced by automatic speech recognition (ASR) lead to irrelevant search results returned to the user, thus causing user dissatisfaction. In this paper, we introduce an approach, Mondegreen, to correct voice queries in text space without depending on audio signals, which may not always be available due to system constraints or privacy or bandwidth (for example, some ASR systems run on-device) considerations. We focus on voice queries transcribed via several proprietary commercial ASR systems. These queries come from users making internet, or online service search queries. We first present an analysis showing how different the language distribution coming from user voice queries is from that in traditional text corpora used to train off-the-shelf ASR systems. We then demonstrate that Mondegreen can achieve significant improvements in increased user interaction by correcting user voice queries in one of the largest search systems in Google. Finally, we see Mondegreen as complementing existing highly-optimized production ASR systems, which may not be frequently retrained and thus lag behind due to vocabulary drifts.

* Accepted in KDD 2021 

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TAT-QA: A Question Answering Benchmark on a Hybrid of Tabular and Textual Content in Finance

May 17, 2021
Fengbin Zhu, Wenqiang Lei, Youcheng Huang, Chao Wang, Shuo Zhang, Jiancheng Lv, Fuli Feng, Tat-Seng Chua

Hybrid data combining both tabular and textual content (e.g., financial reports) are quite pervasive in the real world. However, Question Answering (QA) over such hybrid data is largely neglected in existing research. In this work, we extract samples from real financial reports to build a new large-scale QA dataset containing both Tabular And Textual data, named TAT-QA, where numerical reasoning is usually required to infer the answer, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, counting, comparison/sorting, and the compositions. We further propose a novel QA model termed TAGOP, which is capable of reasoning over both tables and text. It adopts sequence tagging to extract relevant cells from the table along with relevant spans from the text to infer their semantics, and then applies symbolic reasoning over them with a set of aggregation operators to arrive at the final answer. TAGOPachieves 58.0% inF1, which is an 11.1% absolute increase over the previous best baseline model, according to our experiments on TAT-QA. But this result still lags far behind performance of expert human, i.e.90.8% in F1. It is demonstrated that our TAT-QA is very challenging and can serve as a benchmark for training and testing powerful QA models that address hybrid form data.

* Accepted by ACL 2021 

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Characterizing References from Different Disciplines: A Perspective of Citation Content Analysis

Jan 19, 2021
Chengzhi Zhang, Lifan Liu, Yuzhuo Wang

Multidisciplinary cooperation is now common in research since social issues inevitably involve multiple disciplines. In research articles, reference information, especially citation content, is an important representation of communication among different disciplines. Analyzing the distribution characteristics of references from different disciplines in research articles is basic to detecting the sources of referred information and identifying contributions of different disciplines. This work takes articles in PLoS as the data and characterizes the references from different disciplines based on Citation Content Analysis (CCA). First, we download 210,334 full-text articles from PLoS and collect the information of the in-text citations. Then, we identify the discipline of each reference in these academic articles. To characterize the distribution of these references, we analyze three characteristics, namely, the number of citations, the average cited intensity and the average citation length. Finally, we conclude that the distributions of references from different disciplines are significantly different. Although most references come from Natural Science, Humanities and Social Sciences play important roles in the Introduction and Background sections of the articles. Basic disciplines, such as Mathematics, mainly provide research methods in the articles in PLoS. Citations mentioned in the Results and Discussion sections of articles are mainly in-discipline citations, such as citations from Nursing and Medicine in PLoS.

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SummEval: Re-evaluating Summarization Evaluation

Jul 31, 2020
Alexander R. Fabbri, Wojciech Kryściński, Bryan McCann, Caiming Xiong, Richard Socher, Dragomir Radev

The scarcity of comprehensive up-to-date studies on evaluation metrics for text summarization and the lack of consensus regarding evaluation protocols continues to inhibit progress. We address the existing shortcomings of summarization evaluation methods along five dimensions: 1) we re-evaluate 12 automatic evaluation metrics in a comprehensive and consistent fashion using neural summarization model outputs along with expert and crowd-sourced human annotations, 2) we consistently benchmark 23 recent summarization models using the aforementioned automatic evaluation metrics, 3) we assemble the largest collection of summaries generated by models trained on the CNN/DailyMail news dataset and share it in a unified format, 4) we implement and share a toolkit that provides an extensible and unified API for evaluating summarization models across a broad range of automatic metrics, 5) we assemble and share the largest and most diverse, in terms of model types, collection of human judgments of model-generated summaries on the CNN/Daily Mail dataset annotated by both expert judges and crowd source workers. We hope that this work will help promote a more complete evaluation protocol for text summarization as well as advance research in developing evaluation metrics that better correlate with human judgements.

* 10 pages, 4 tables, 1 figure 

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AVLnet: Learning Audio-Visual Language Representations from Instructional Videos

Jun 16, 2020
Andrew Rouditchenko, Angie Boggust, David Harwath, Dhiraj Joshi, Samuel Thomas, Kartik Audhkhasi, Rogerio Feris, Brian Kingsbury, Michael Picheny, Antonio Torralba, James Glass

Current methods for learning visually grounded language from videos often rely on time-consuming and expensive data collection, such as human annotated textual summaries or machine generated automatic speech recognition transcripts. In this work, we introduce Audio-Video Language Network (AVLnet), a self-supervised network that learns a shared audio-visual embedding space directly from raw video inputs. We circumvent the need for annotation and instead learn audio-visual language representations directly from randomly segmented video clips and their raw audio waveforms. We train AVLnet on publicly available instructional videos and evaluate our model on video clip and language retrieval tasks on three video datasets. Our proposed model outperforms several state-of-the-art text-video baselines by up to 11.8% in a video clip retrieval task, despite operating on the raw audio instead of manually annotated text captions. Further, we show AVLnet is capable of integrating textual information, increasing its modularity and improving performance by up to 20.3% on the video clip retrieval task. Finally, we perform analysis of AVLnet's learned representations, showing our model has learned to relate visual objects with salient words and natural sounds.

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A Deep Learning based Wearable Healthcare IoT Device for AI-enabled Hearing Assistance Automation

May 16, 2020
Fraser Young, L Zhang, Richard Jiang, Han Liu, Conor Wall

With the recent booming of artificial intelligence (AI), particularly deep learning techniques, digital healthcare is one of the prevalent areas that could gain benefits from AI-enabled functionality. This research presents a novel AI-enabled Internet of Things (IoT) device operating from the ESP-8266 platform capable of assisting those who suffer from impairment of hearing or deafness to communicate with others in conversations. In the proposed solution, a server application is created that leverages Google's online speech recognition service to convert the received conversations into texts, then deployed to a micro-display attached to the glasses to display the conversation contents to deaf people, to enable and assist conversation as normal with the general population. Furthermore, in order to raise alert of traffic or dangerous scenarios, an 'urban-emergency' classifier is developed using a deep learning model, Inception-v4, with transfer learning to detect/recognize alerting/alarming sounds, such as a horn sound or a fire alarm, with texts generated to alert the prospective user. The training of Inception-v4 was carried out on a consumer desktop PC and then implemented into the AI based IoT application. The empirical results indicate that the developed prototype system achieves an accuracy rate of 92% for sound recognition and classification with real-time performance.

* The 2020 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics 

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Generation-Distillation for Efficient Natural Language Understanding in Low-Data Settings

Jan 25, 2020
Luke Melas-Kyriazi, George Han, Celine Liang

Over the past year, the emergence of transfer learning with large-scale language models (LM) has led to dramatic performance improvements across a broad range of natural language understanding tasks. However, the size and memory footprint of these large LMs makes them difficult to deploy in many scenarios (e.g. on mobile phones). Recent research points to knowledge distillation as a potential solution, showing that when training data for a given task is abundant, it is possible to distill a large (teacher) LM into a small task-specific (student) network with minimal loss of performance. However, when such data is scarce, there remains a significant performance gap between large pretrained LMs and smaller task-specific models, even when training via distillation. In this paper, we bridge this gap with a novel training approach, called generation-distillation, that leverages large finetuned LMs in two ways: (1) to generate new (unlabeled) training examples, and (2) to distill their knowledge into a small network using these examples. Across three low-resource text classification datsets, we achieve comparable performance to BERT while using 300x fewer parameters, and we outperform prior approaches to distillation for text classification while using 3x fewer parameters.

* EMNLP 2019 Workshop on Deep Learning for Low-resource NLP 

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