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A framework for the extraction of Deep Neural Networks by leveraging public data

May 22, 2019
Soham Pal, Yash Gupta, Aditya Shukla, Aditya Kanade, Shirish Shevade, Vinod Ganapathy

Machine learning models trained on confidential datasets are increasingly being deployed for profit. Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS) has made such models easily accessible to end-users. Prior work has developed model extraction attacks, in which an adversary extracts an approximation of MLaaS models by making black-box queries to it. However, none of these works is able to satisfy all the three essential criteria for practical model extraction: (1) the ability to work on deep learning models, (2) the non-requirement of domain knowledge and (3) the ability to work with a limited query budget. We design a model extraction framework that makes use of active learning and large public datasets to satisfy them. We demonstrate that it is possible to use this framework to steal deep classifiers trained on a variety of datasets from image and text domains. By querying a model via black-box access for its top prediction, our framework improves performance on an average over a uniform noise baseline by 4.70x for image tasks and 2.11x for text tasks respectively, while using only 30% (30,000 samples) of the public dataset at its disposal.


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A Study on Agreement in PICO Span Annotations

Apr 21, 2019
Grace E. Lee, Aixin Sun

In evidence-based medicine, relevance of medical literature is determined by predefined relevance conditions. The conditions are defined based on PICO elements, namely, Patient, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome. Hence, PICO annotations in medical literature are essential for automatic relevant document filtering. However, defining boundaries of text spans for PICO elements is not straightforward. In this paper, we study the agreement of PICO annotations made by multiple human annotators, including both experts and non-experts. Agreements are estimated by a standard span agreement (i.e., matching both labels and boundaries of text spans), and two types of relaxed span agreement (i.e., matching labels without guaranteeing matching boundaries of spans). Based on the analysis, we report two observations: (i) Boundaries of PICO span annotations by individual human annotators are very diverse. (ii) Despite the disagreement in span boundaries, general areas of the span annotations are broadly agreed by annotators. Our results suggest that applying a standard agreement alone may undermine the agreement of PICO spans, and adopting both a standard and a relaxed agreements is more suitable for PICO span evaluation.

* Accepted in SIGIR 2019 (Short paper) 

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Knowledge Aware Conversation Generation with Reasoning on Augmented Graph

Mar 25, 2019
Zhibin Liu, Zheng-Yu Niu, Hua Wu, Haifeng Wang

Two types of knowledge, factoid knowledge from graphs and non-factoid knowledge from unstructured documents, have been studied for knowledge aware open-domain conversation generation, in which edge information in graphs can help generalization of knowledge selectors, and text sentences of non-factoid knowledge can provide rich information for response generation. Fusion of knowledge triples and sentences might yield mutually reinforcing advantages for conversation generation, but there is less study on that. To address this challenge, we propose a knowledge aware chatting machine with three components, augmented knowledge graph containing both factoid and non-factoid knowledge, knowledge selector, and response generator. For knowledge selection on the graph, we formulate it as a problem of multi-hop graph reasoning that is more flexible in comparison with previous one-hop knowledge selection models. To fully leverage long text information that differentiates our graph from others, we improve a state of the art reasoning algorithm with machine reading comprehension technology. We demonstrate that supported by such unified knowledge and knowledge selection method, our system can generate more appropriate and informative responses than baselines.

* 10 pages, a preprint 

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MOROCO: The Moldavian and Romanian Dialectal Corpus

Jan 19, 2019
Andrei M. Butnaru, Radu Tudor Ionescu

In this work, we introduce the MOldavian and ROmanian Dialectal COrpus (MOROCO), which is freely available for download at https://github.com/butnaruandrei/MOROCO. The corpus contains 33564 samples of text (with over 10 million tokens) collected from the news domain. The samples belong to one of the following six topics: culture, finance, politics, science, sports and tech. The data set is divided into 21719 samples for training, 5921 samples for validation and another 5924 samples for testing. For each sample, we provide corresponding dialectal and category labels. This allows us to perform empirical studies on several classification tasks such as (i) binary discrimination of Moldavian versus Romanian text samples, (ii) intra-dialect multi-class categorization by topic and (iii) cross-dialect multi-class categorization by topic. We perform experiments using a shallow approach based on string kernels, as well as a novel deep approach based on character-level convolutional neural networks containing Squeeze-and-Excitation blocks. We also present and analyze the most discriminative features of our best performing model, before and after named entity removal.


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Cross-lingual Candidate Search for Biomedical Concept Normalization

May 04, 2018
Roland Roller, Madeleine Kittner, Dirk Weissenborn, Ulf Leser

Biomedical concept normalization links concept mentions in texts to a semantically equivalent concept in a biomedical knowledge base. This task is challenging as concepts can have different expressions in natural languages, e.g. paraphrases, which are not necessarily all present in the knowledge base. Concept normalization of non-English biomedical text is even more challenging as non-English resources tend to be much smaller and contain less synonyms. To overcome the limitations of non-English terminologies we propose a cross-lingual candidate search for concept normalization using a character-based neural translation model trained on a multilingual biomedical terminology. Our model is trained with Spanish, French, Dutch and German versions of UMLS. The evaluation of our model is carried out on the French Quaero corpus, showing that it outperforms most teams of CLEF eHealth 2015 and 2016. Additionally, we compare performance to commercial translators on Spanish, French, Dutch and German versions of Mantra. Our model performs similarly well, but is free of charge and can be run locally. This is particularly important for clinical NLP applications as medical documents underlay strict privacy restrictions.


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Seq2Sick: Evaluating the Robustness of Sequence-to-Sequence Models with Adversarial Examples

Mar 03, 2018
Minhao Cheng, Jinfeng Yi, Huan Zhang, Pin-Yu Chen, Cho-Jui Hsieh

Crafting adversarial examples has become an important technique to evaluate the robustness of deep neural networks (DNNs). However, most existing works focus on attacking the image classification problem since its input space is continuous and output space is finite. In this paper, we study the much more challenging problem of crafting adversarial examples for sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models, whose inputs are discrete text strings and outputs have an almost infinite number of possibilities. To address the challenges caused by the discrete input space, we propose a projected gradient method combined with group lasso and gradient regularization. To handle the almost infinite output space, we design some novel loss functions to conduct non-overlapping attack and targeted keyword attack. We apply our algorithm to machine translation and text summarization tasks, and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm: by changing less than 3 words, we can make seq2seq model to produce desired outputs with high success rates. On the other hand, we recognize that, compared with the well-evaluated CNN-based classifiers, seq2seq models are intrinsically more robust to adversarial attacks.


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Visual Features for Context-Aware Speech Recognition

Dec 01, 2017
Abhinav Gupta, Yajie Miao, Leonardo Neves, Florian Metze

Automatic transcriptions of consumer-generated multi-media content such as "Youtube" videos still exhibit high word error rates. Such data typically occupies a very broad domain, has been recorded in challenging conditions, with cheap hardware and a focus on the visual modality, and may have been post-processed or edited. In this paper, we extend our earlier work on adapting the acoustic model of a DNN-based speech recognition system to an RNN language model and show how both can be adapted to the objects and scenes that can be automatically detected in the video. We are working on a corpus of "how-to" videos from the web, and the idea is that an object that can be seen ("car"), or a scene that is being detected ("kitchen") can be used to condition both models on the "context" of the recording, thereby reducing perplexity and improving transcription. We achieve good improvements in both cases and compare and analyze the respective reductions in word error rate. We expect that our results can be used for any type of speech processing in which "context" information is available, for example in robotics, man-machine interaction, or when indexing large audio-visual archives, and should ultimately help to bring together the "video-to-text" and "speech-to-text" communities.

* IEEE Xplore (ICASSP) (2017) 5020-5024 
* 5 pages and 3 figures 

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Symbolic Representation and Classification of Logos

Dec 28, 2016
D. S. Guru, N. Vinay Kumar

In this paper, a model for classification of logos based on symbolic representation of features is presented. The proposed model makes use of global features of logo images such as color, texture, and shape features for classification. The logo images are broadly classified into three different classes, viz., logo image containing only text, an image with only symbol, and an image with both text and a symbol. In each class, the similar looking logo images are clustered using K-means clustering algorithm. The intra-cluster variations present in each cluster corresponding to each class are then preserved using symbolic interval data. Thus referenced logo images are represented in the form of interval data. A sample logo image is then classified using suitable symbolic classifier. For experimentation purpose, relatively large amount of color logo images is created consisting of 5044 logo images. The classification results are validated with the help of accuracy, precision, recall, F-measure, and time. To check the efficacy of the proposed model, the comparative analyses are given against the other models. The results show that the proposed model outperforms the other models with respect to time and F-measure.

* 15 pages, 6 figures, 6 tables, Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Vision and Image Processing (CVIP 2016). arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1609.01414 

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A Likelihood Ratio based Domain Adaptation Method for E2E Models

Jan 10, 2022
Chhavi Choudhury, Ankur Gandhe, Xiaohan Ding, Ivan Bulyko

End-to-end (E2E) automatic speech recognition models like Recurrent Neural Networks Transducer (RNN-T) are becoming a popular choice for streaming ASR applications like voice assistants. While E2E models are very effective at learning representation of the training data they are trained on, their accuracy on unseen domains remains a challenging problem. Additionally, these models require paired audio and text training data, are computationally expensive and are difficult to adapt towards the fast evolving nature of conversational speech. In this work, we explore a contextual biasing approach using likelihood-ratio that leverages text data sources to adapt RNN-T model to new domains and entities. We show that this method is effective in improving rare words recognition, and results in a relative improvement of 10% in 1-best word error rate (WER) and 10% in n-best Oracle WER (n=8) on multiple out-of-domain datasets without any degradation on a general dataset. We also show that complementing the contextual biasing adaptation with adaptation of a second-pass rescoring model gives additive WER improvements.

* Submitted to ICASSP 2022 

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Cross-lingual Low Resource Speaker Adaptation Using Phonological Features

Nov 17, 2021
Georgia Maniati, Nikolaos Ellinas, Konstantinos Markopoulos, Georgios Vamvoukakis, June Sig Sung, Hyoungmin Park, Aimilios Chalamandaris, Pirros Tsiakoulis

The idea of using phonological features instead of phonemes as input to sequence-to-sequence TTS has been recently proposed for zero-shot multilingual speech synthesis. This approach is useful for code-switching, as it facilitates the seamless uttering of foreign text embedded in a stream of native text. In our work, we train a language-agnostic multispeaker model conditioned on a set of phonologically derived features common across different languages, with the goal of achieving cross-lingual speaker adaptation. We first experiment with the effect of language phonological similarity on cross-lingual TTS of several source-target language combinations. Subsequently, we fine-tune the model with very limited data of a new speaker's voice in either a seen or an unseen language, and achieve synthetic speech of equal quality, while preserving the target speaker's identity. With as few as 32 and 8 utterances of target speaker data, we obtain high speaker similarity scores and naturalness comparable to the corresponding literature. In the extreme case of only 2 available adaptation utterances, we find that our model behaves as a few-shot learner, as the performance is similar in both the seen and unseen adaptation language scenarios.

* Proceedings of INTERSPEECH 2021 

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