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Learning to Read Chest X-Rays: Recurrent Neural Cascade Model for Automated Image Annotation

Mar 28, 2016
Hoo-Chang Shin, Kirk Roberts, Le Lu, Dina Demner-Fushman, Jianhua Yao, Ronald M Summers

Despite the recent advances in automatically describing image contents, their applications have been mostly limited to image caption datasets containing natural images (e.g., Flickr 30k, MSCOCO). In this paper, we present a deep learning model to efficiently detect a disease from an image and annotate its contexts (e.g., location, severity and the affected organs). We employ a publicly available radiology dataset of chest x-rays and their reports, and use its image annotations to mine disease names to train convolutional neural networks (CNNs). In doing so, we adopt various regularization techniques to circumvent the large normal-vs-diseased cases bias. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are then trained to describe the contexts of a detected disease, based on the deep CNN features. Moreover, we introduce a novel approach to use the weights of the already trained pair of CNN/RNN on the domain-specific image/text dataset, to infer the joint image/text contexts for composite image labeling. Significantly improved image annotation results are demonstrated using the recurrent neural cascade model by taking the joint image/text contexts into account.


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Image Specificity

Apr 16, 2015
Mainak Jas, Devi Parikh

For some images, descriptions written by multiple people are consistent with each other. But for other images, descriptions across people vary considerably. In other words, some images are specific $-$ they elicit consistent descriptions from different people $-$ while other images are ambiguous. Applications involving images and text can benefit from an understanding of which images are specific and which ones are ambiguous. For instance, consider text-based image retrieval. If a query description is moderately similar to the caption (or reference description) of an ambiguous image, that query may be considered a decent match to the image. But if the image is very specific, a moderate similarity between the query and the reference description may not be sufficient to retrieve the image. In this paper, we introduce the notion of image specificity. We present two mechanisms to measure specificity given multiple descriptions of an image: an automated measure and a measure that relies on human judgement. We analyze image specificity with respect to image content and properties to better understand what makes an image specific. We then train models to automatically predict the specificity of an image from image features alone without requiring textual descriptions of the image. Finally, we show that modeling image specificity leads to improvements in a text-based image retrieval application.


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Hybrid Transformer with Multi-level Fusion for Multimodal Knowledge Graph Completion

May 04, 2022
Xiang Chen, Ningyu Zhang, Lei Li, Shumin Deng, Chuanqi Tan, Changliang Xu, Fei Huang, Luo Si, Huajun Chen

Multimodal Knowledge Graphs (MKGs), which organize visual-text factual knowledge, have recently been successfully applied to tasks such as information retrieval, question answering, and recommendation system. Since most MKGs are far from complete, extensive knowledge graph completion studies have been proposed focusing on the multimodal entity, relation extraction and link prediction. However, different tasks and modalities require changes to the model architecture, and not all images/objects are relevant to text input, which hinders the applicability to diverse real-world scenarios. In this paper, we propose a hybrid transformer with multi-level fusion to address those issues. Specifically, we leverage a hybrid transformer architecture with unified input-output for diverse multimodal knowledge graph completion tasks. Moreover, we propose multi-level fusion, which integrates visual and text representation via coarse-grained prefix-guided interaction and fine-grained correlation-aware fusion modules. We conduct extensive experiments to validate that our MKGformer can obtain SOTA performance on four datasets of multimodal link prediction, multimodal RE, and multimodal NER. Code is available in https://github.com/zjunlp/MKGformer.

* Accepted by SIGIR 2022 

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Table Pretraining: A Survey on Model Architectures, Pretraining Objectives, and Downstream Tasks

Jan 24, 2022
Haoyu Dong, Zhoujun Cheng, Xinyi He, Mengyu Zhou, Anda Zhou, Fan Zhou, Ao Liu, Shi Han, Dongmei Zhang

Since a vast number of tables can be easily collected from web pages, spreadsheets, PDFs, and various other document types, a flurry of table pretraining frameworks have been proposed following the success of text and images, and they have achieved new state-of-the-arts on various tasks such as table question answering, table type recognition, column relation classification, table search, formula prediction, etc. To fully use the supervision signals in unlabeled tables, a variety of pretraining objectives have been designed and evaluated, for example, denoising cell values, predicting numerical relationships, and implicitly executing SQLs. And to best leverage the characteristics of (semi-)structured tables, various tabular language models, particularly with specially-designed attention mechanisms, have been explored. Since tables usually appear and interact with free-form text, table pretraining usually takes the form of table-text joint pretraining, which attracts significant research interests from multiple domains. This survey aims to provide a comprehensive review of different model designs, pretraining objectives, and downstream tasks for table pretraining, and we share our thoughts and vision on existing challenges and future opportunities.

* Work in progress 

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Enhance to Read Better: An Improved Generative Adversarial Network for Handwritten Document Image Enhancement

May 26, 2021
Sana Khamekhem Jemni, Mohamed Ali Souibgui, Yousri Kessentini, Alicia Fornés

Handwritten document images can be highly affected by degradation for different reasons: Paper ageing, daily-life scenarios (wrinkles, dust, etc.), bad scanning process and so on. These artifacts raise many readability issues for current Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) algorithms and severely devalue their efficiency. In this paper, we propose an end to end architecture based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to recover the degraded documents into a clean and readable form. Unlike the most well-known document binarization methods, which try to improve the visual quality of the degraded document, the proposed architecture integrates a handwritten text recognizer that promotes the generated document image to be more readable. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to use the text information while binarizing handwritten documents. Extensive experiments conducted on degraded Arabic and Latin handwritten documents demonstrate the usefulness of integrating the recognizer within the GAN architecture, which improves both the visual quality and the readability of the degraded document images. Moreover, we outperform the state of the art in H-DIBCO 2018 challenge, after fine tuning our pre-trained model with synthetically degraded Latin handwritten images, on this task.

* Submitted to Pattern Recognition 

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Align then Summarize: Automatic Alignment Methods for Summarization Corpus Creation

Jul 15, 2020
Paul Tardy, David Janiszek, Yannick Estève, Vincent Nguyen

Summarizing texts is not a straightforward task. Before even considering text summarization, one should determine what kind of summary is expected. How much should the information be compressed? Is it relevant to reformulate or should the summary stick to the original phrasing? State-of-the-art on automatic text summarization mostly revolves around news articles. We suggest that considering a wider variety of tasks would lead to an improvement in the field, in terms of generalization and robustness. We explore meeting summarization: generating reports from automatic transcriptions. Our work consists in segmenting and aligning transcriptions with respect to reports, to get a suitable dataset for neural summarization. Using a bootstrapping approach, we provide pre-alignments that are corrected by human annotators, making a validation set against which we evaluate automatic models. This consistently reduces annotators' efforts by providing iteratively better pre-alignment and maximizes the corpus size by using annotations from our automatic alignment models. Evaluation is conducted on \publicmeetings, a novel corpus of aligned public meetings. We report automatic alignment and summarization performances on this corpus and show that automatic alignment is relevant for data annotation since it leads to large improvement of almost +4 on all ROUGE scores on the summarization task.

* LREC 2020 -- Proceedings of The 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, 2020, pp. 6718--6724 

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Adversarial Feature Learning and Unsupervised Clustering based Speech Synthesis for Found Data with Acoustic and Textual Noise

Apr 28, 2020
Shan Yang, Yuxuan Wang, Lei Xie

Attention-based sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) speech synthesis has achieved extraordinary performance. But a studio-quality corpus with manual transcription is necessary to train such seq2seq systems. In this paper, we propose an approach to build high-quality and stable seq2seq based speech synthesis system using challenging found data, where training speech contains noisy interferences (acoustic noise) and texts are imperfect speech recognition transcripts (textual noise). To deal with text-side noise, we propose a VQVAE based heuristic method to compensate erroneous linguistic feature with phonetic information learned directly from speech. As for the speech-side noise, we propose to learn a noise-independent feature in the auto-regressive decoder through adversarial training and data augmentation, which does not need an extra speech enhancement model. Experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in dealing with text-side and speech-side noise. Surpassing the denoising approach based on a state-of-the-art speech enhancement model, our system built on noisy found data can synthesize clean and high-quality speech with MOS close to the system built on the clean counterpart.

* submitted to IEEE SPL 

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Multilingual Denoising Pre-training for Neural Machine Translation

Jan 23, 2020
Yinhan Liu, Jiatao Gu, Naman Goyal, Xian Li, Sergey Edunov, Marjan Ghazvininejad, Mike Lewis, Luke Zettlemoyer

This paper demonstrates that multilingual denoising pre-training produces significant performance gains across a wide variety of machine translation (MT) tasks. We present mBART -- a sequence-to-sequence denoising auto-encoder pre-trained on large-scale monolingual corpora in many languages using the BART objective. mBART is one of the first methods for pre-training a complete sequence-to-sequence model by denoising full texts in multiple languages, while previous approaches have focused only on the encoder, decoder, or reconstructing parts of the text. Pre-training a complete model allows it to be directly fine tuned for supervised (both sentence-level and document-level) and unsupervised machine translation, with no task-specific modifications. We demonstrate that adding mBART initialization produces performance gains in all but the highest-resource settings, including up to 12 BLEU points for low resource MT and over 5 BLEU points for many document-level and unsupervised models. We also show it also enables new types of transfer to language pairs with no bi-text or that were not in the pre-training corpus, and present extensive analysis of which factors contribute the most to effective pre-training.

* Work in progress 

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Learning Eligibility in Cancer Clinical Trials using Deep Neural Networks

Jul 25, 2018
Aurelia Bustos, Antonio Pertusa

Interventional cancer clinical trials are generally too restrictive, and some patients are often excluded on the basis of comorbidity, past or concomitant treatments, or the fact that they are over a certain age. The efficacy and safety of new treatments for patients with these characteristics are, therefore, not defined. In this work, we built a model to automatically predict whether short clinical statements were considered inclusion or exclusion criteria. We used protocols from cancer clinical trials that were available in public registries from the last 18 years to train word-embeddings, and we constructed a~dataset of 6M short free-texts labeled as eligible or not eligible. A text classifier was trained using deep neural networks, with pre-trained word-embeddings as inputs, to predict whether or not short free-text statements describing clinical information were considered eligible. We additionally analyzed the semantic reasoning of the word-embedding representations obtained and were able to identify equivalent treatments for a type of tumor analogous with the drugs used to treat other tumors. We show that representation learning using {deep} neural networks can be successfully leveraged to extract the medical knowledge from clinical trial protocols for potentially assisting practitioners when prescribing treatments.

* Applied Sciences, 8(7), 2018 

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Autocompletion interfaces make crowd workers slower, but their use promotes response diversity

Jul 21, 2017
Xipei Liu, James P. Bagrow

Creative tasks such as ideation or question proposal are powerful applications of crowdsourcing, yet the quantity of workers available for addressing practical problems is often insufficient. To enable scalable crowdsourcing thus requires gaining all possible efficiency and information from available workers. One option for text-focused tasks is to allow assistive technology, such as an autocompletion user interface (AUI), to help workers input text responses. But support for the efficacy of AUIs is mixed. Here we designed and conducted a randomized experiment where workers were asked to provide short text responses to given questions. Our experimental goal was to determine if an AUI helps workers respond more quickly and with improved consistency by mitigating typos and misspellings. Surprisingly, we found that neither occurred: workers assigned to the AUI treatment were slower than those assigned to the non-AUI control and their responses were more diverse, not less, than those of the control. Both the lexical and semantic diversities of responses were higher, with the latter measured using word2vec. A crowdsourcer interested in worker speed may want to avoid using an AUI, but using an AUI to boost response diversity may be valuable to crowdsourcers interested in receiving as much novel information from workers as possible.

* 12 pages, 6 figures 

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