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Sequential Modelling with Applications to Music Recommendation, Fact-Checking, and Speed Reading

Sep 11, 2021
Christian Hansen

Sequential modelling entails making sense of sequential data, which naturally occurs in a wide array of domains. One example is systems that interact with users, log user actions and behaviour, and make recommendations of items of potential interest to users on the basis of their previous interactions. In such cases, the sequential order of user interactions is often indicative of what the user is interested in next. Similarly, for systems that automatically infer the semantics of text, capturing the sequential order of words in a sentence is essential, as even a slight re-ordering could significantly alter its original meaning. This thesis makes methodological contributions and new investigations of sequential modelling for the specific application areas of systems that recommend music tracks to listeners and systems that process text semantics in order to automatically fact-check claims, or "speed read" text for efficient further classification. (Rest of abstract omitted due to arXiv abstract limit)

* PhD Thesis, University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science 

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Robust Named Entity Recognition with Truecasing Pretraining

Dec 15, 2019
Stephen Mayhew, Nitish Gupta, Dan Roth

Although modern named entity recognition (NER) systems show impressive performance on standard datasets, they perform poorly when presented with noisy data. In particular, capitalization is a strong signal for entities in many languages, and even state of the art models overfit to this feature, with drastically lower performance on uncapitalized text. In this work, we address the problem of robustness of NER systems in data with noisy or uncertain casing, using a pretraining objective that predicts casing in text, or a truecaser, leveraging unlabeled data. The pretrained truecaser is combined with a standard BiLSTM-CRF model for NER by appending output distributions to character embeddings. In experiments over several datasets of varying domain and casing quality, we show that our new model improves performance in uncased text, even adding value to uncased BERT embeddings. Our method achieves a new state of the art on the WNUT17 shared task dataset.

* Accepted to AAAI 2020 

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Long-length Legal Document Classification

Dec 14, 2019
Lulu Wan, George Papageorgiou, Michael Seddon, Mirko Bernardoni

One of the principal tasks of machine learning with major applications is text classification. This paper focuses on the legal domain and, in particular, on the classification of lengthy legal documents. The main challenge that this study addresses is the limitation that current models impose on the length of the input text. In addition, the present paper shows that dividing the text into segments and later combining the resulting embeddings with a BiLSTM architecture to form a single document embedding can improve results. These advancements are achieved by utilising a simpler structure, rather than an increasingly complex one, which is often the case in NLP research. The dataset used in this paper is obtained from an online public database containing lengthy legal documents with highly domain-specific vocabulary and thus, the comparison of our results to the ones produced by models implemented on the commonly used datasets would be unjustified. This work provides the foundation for future work in document classification in the legal field.

* 8 pages, 5 figures, 4 equations, 5 tables 

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Why X rather than Y? Explaining Neural Model' Predictions by Generating Intervention Counterfactual Samples

Nov 05, 2019
Thai Le, Suhang Wang, Dongwon Lee

Even though the topic of explainable AI/ML is very popular in text and computer vision domain, most of the previous literatures are not suitable for explaining black-box models' predictions on general data mining datasets. This is because these datasets are usually in high-dimensional vectored features format that are not as friendly and comprehensible as texts and images to the end users. In this paper, we combine the best of both worlds: "explanations by intervention" from causality and "explanations are contrastive" from philosophy and social science domain to explain neural models' predictions for tabular datasets. Specifically, given a model's prediction as label X, we propose a novel idea to intervene and generate minimally modified contrastive sample to be classified as Y, that then results in a simple natural text giving answer to the question "Why X rather than Y?". We carry out experiments with several datasets of different scales and compare our approach with other baselines on three different areas: fidelity, reasonableness and explainability.

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Improving Sentiment Analysis in Arabic Using Word Representation

Mar 30, 2018
Abdulaziz M. Alayba, Vasile Palade, Matthew England, Rahat Iqbal

The complexities of Arabic language in morphology, orthography and dialects makes sentiment analysis for Arabic more challenging. Also, text feature extraction from short messages like tweets, in order to gauge the sentiment, makes this task even more difficult. In recent years, deep neural networks were often employed and showed very good results in sentiment classification and natural language processing applications. Word embedding, or word distributing approach, is a current and powerful tool to capture together the closest words from a contextual text. In this paper, we describe how we construct Word2Vec models from a large Arabic corpus obtained from ten newspapers in different Arab countries. By applying different machine learning algorithms and convolutional neural networks with different text feature selections, we report improved accuracy of sentiment classification (91%-95%) on our publicly available Arabic language health sentiment dataset [1]

* Proc. 2nd International Workshop on Arabic and Derived Script Analysis and Recognition (ASAR '18), pp. 13-18. IEEE, 2018 
* Authors accepted version of submission for ASAR 2018 

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Content-based similar document image retrieval using fusion of CNN features

Sep 01, 2017
Mao Tan, Si-Ping Yuan, Yong-Xin Su

Rapid increase of digitized document give birth to high demand of document image retrieval. While conventional document image retrieval approaches depend on complex OCR-based text recognition and text similarity detection, this paper proposes a new content-based approach, in which more attention is paid to features extraction and fusion. In the proposed approach, multiple features of document images are extracted by different CNN models. After that, the extracted CNN features are reduced and fused into weighted average feature. Finally, the document images are ranked based on feature similarity to a provided query image. Experimental procedure is performed on a group of document images that transformed from academic papers, which contain both English and Chinese document, the results show that the proposed approach has good ability to retrieve document images with similar text content, and the fusion of CNN features can effectively improve the retrieval accuracy.

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Equation Parsing: Mapping Sentences to Grounded Equations

Sep 28, 2016
Subhro Roy, Shyam Upadhyay, Dan Roth

Identifying mathematical relations expressed in text is essential to understanding a broad range of natural language text from election reports, to financial news, to sport commentaries to mathematical word problems. This paper focuses on identifying and understanding mathematical relations described within a single sentence. We introduce the problem of Equation Parsing -- given a sentence, identify noun phrases which represent variables, and generate the mathematical equation expressing the relation described in the sentence. We introduce the notion of projective equation parsing and provide an efficient algorithm to parse text to projective equations. Our system makes use of a high precision lexicon of mathematical expressions and a pipeline of structured predictors, and generates correct equations in $70\%$ of the cases. In $60\%$ of the time, it also identifies the correct noun phrase $\rightarrow$ variables mapping, significantly outperforming baselines. We also release a new annotated dataset for task evaluation.

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Syllable Analysis to Build a Dictation System in Telugu language

Jan 13, 2010
N. Kalyani, Dr K. V. N. Sunitha

In recent decades, Speech interactive systems gained increasing importance. To develop Dictation System like Dragon for Indian languages it is most important to adapt the system to a speaker with minimum training. In this paper we focus on the importance of creating speech database at syllable units and identifying minimum text to be considered while training any speech recognition system. There are systems developed for continuous speech recognition in English and in few Indian languages like Hindi and Tamil. This paper gives the statistical details of syllables in Telugu and its use in minimizing the search space during recognition of speech. The minimum words that cover maximum syllables are identified. This words list can be used for preparing a small text which can be used for collecting speech sample while training the dictation system. The results are plotted for frequency of syllables and the number of syllables in each word. This approach is applied on the CIIL Mysore text corpus which is of 3 million words.

* International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, IJCSIS, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 171-176, December 2009, USA 
* 6 pages IEEE format, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, IJCSIS December 2009, ISSN 1947 5500, 

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Data Determines Distributional Robustness in Contrastive Language Image Pre-training (CLIP)

May 03, 2022
Alex Fang, Gabriel Ilharco, Mitchell Wortsman, Yuhao Wan, Vaishaal Shankar, Achal Dave, Ludwig Schmidt

Contrastively trained image-text models such as CLIP, ALIGN, and BASIC have demonstrated unprecedented robustness to multiple challenging natural distribution shifts. Since these image-text models differ from previous training approaches in several ways, an important question is what causes the large robustness gains. We answer this question via a systematic experimental investigation. Concretely, we study five different possible causes for the robustness gains: (i) the training set size, (ii) the training distribution, (iii) language supervision at training time, (iv) language supervision at test time, and (v) the contrastive loss function. Our experiments show that the more diverse training distribution is the main cause for the robustness gains, with the other factors contributing little to no robustness. Beyond our experimental results, we also introduce ImageNet-Captions, a version of ImageNet with original text annotations from Flickr, to enable further controlled experiments of language-image training.

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Emotional Prosody Control for Speech Generation

Nov 07, 2021
Sarath Sivaprasad, Saiteja Kosgi, Vineet Gandhi

Machine-generated speech is characterized by its limited or unnatural emotional variation. Current text to speech systems generates speech with either a flat emotion, emotion selected from a predefined set, average variation learned from prosody sequences in training data or transferred from a source style. We propose a text to speech(TTS) system, where a user can choose the emotion of generated speech from a continuous and meaningful emotion space (Arousal-Valence space). The proposed TTS system can generate speech from the text in any speaker's style, with fine control of emotion. We show that the system works on emotion unseen during training and can scale to previously unseen speakers given his/her speech sample. Our work expands the horizon of the state-of-the-art FastSpeech2 backbone to a multi-speaker setting and gives it much-coveted continuous (and interpretable) affective control, without any observable degradation in the quality of the synthesized speech.

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