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SE-DAE: Style-Enhanced Denoising Auto-Encoder for Unsupervised Text Style Transfer

Apr 27, 2021
Jicheng Li, Yang Feng, Jiao Ou

Text style transfer aims to change the style of sentences while preserving the semantic meanings. Due to the lack of parallel data, the Denoising Auto-Encoder (DAE) is widely used in this task to model distributions of different sentence styles. However, because of the conflict between the target of the conventional denoising procedure and the target of style transfer task, the vanilla DAE can not produce satisfying enough results. To improve the transferability of the model, most of the existing works combine DAE with various complicated unsupervised networks, which makes the whole system become over-complex. In this work, we design a novel DAE model named Style-Enhanced DAE (SE-DAE), which is specifically designed for the text style transfer task. Compared with previous complicated style-transfer models, our model do not consist of any complicated unsupervised networks, but only relies on the high-quality pseudo-parallel data generated by a novel data refinement mechanism. Moreover, to alleviate the conflict between the targets of the conventional denoising procedure and the style transfer task, we propose another novel style denoising mechanism, which is more compatible with the target of the style transfer task. We validate the effectiveness of our model on two style benchmark datasets. Both automatic evaluation and human evaluation show that our proposed model is highly competitive compared with previous strong the state of the art (SOTA) approaches and greatly outperforms the vanilla DAE.

* Accepted by the 2021 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2021) 

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Conducting sparse feature selection on arbitrarily long phrases in text corpora with a focus on interpretability

Jul 23, 2016
Luke Miratrix, Robin Ackerman

We propose a general framework for topic-specific summarization of large text corpora, and illustrate how it can be used for analysis in two quite different contexts: an OSHA database of fatality and catastrophe reports (to facilitate surveillance for patterns in circumstances leading to injury or death) and legal decisions on workers' compensation claims (to explore relevant case law). Our summarization framework, built on sparse classification methods, is a compromise between simple word frequency based methods currently in wide use, and more heavyweight, model-intensive methods such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). For a particular topic of interest (e.g., mental health disability, or chemical reactions), we regress a labeling of documents onto the high-dimensional counts of all the other words and phrases in the documents. The resulting small set of phrases found as predictive are then harvested as the summary. Using a branch-and-bound approach, this method can be extended to allow for phrases of arbitrary length, which allows for potentially rich summarization. We discuss how focus on the purpose of the summaries can inform choices of regularization parameters and model constraints. We evaluate this tool by comparing computational time and summary statistics of the resulting word lists to three other methods in the literature. We also present a new R package, textreg. Overall, we argue that sparse methods have much to offer text analysis, and is a branch of research that should be considered further in this context.


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Investigation of learning abilities on linguistic features in sequence-to-sequence text-to-speech synthesis

May 20, 2020
Yusuke Yasuda, Xin Wang, Junichi Yamagishi

Neural sequence-to-sequence text-to-speech synthesis (TTS) can produce high-quality speech directly from text or simple linguistic features such as phonemes. Unlike traditional pipeline TTS, the neural sequence-to-sequence TTS does not require manually annotated and complicated linguistic features such as part-of-speech tags and syntactic structures for system training. However, it must be carefully designed and well optimized so that it can implicitly extract useful linguistic features from the input features. In this paper we investigate under what conditions the neural sequence-to-sequence TTS can work well in Japanese and English along with comparisons with deep neural network (DNN) based pipeline TTS systems. Unlike past comparative studies, the pipeline systems also use autoregressive probabilistic modeling and a neural vocoder. We investigated systems from three aspects: a) model architecture, b) model parameter size, and c) language. For the model architecture aspect, we adopt modified Tacotron systems that we previously proposed and their variants using an encoder from Tacotron or Tacotron2. For the model parameter size aspect, we investigate two model parameter sizes. For the language aspect, we conduct listening tests in both Japanese and English to see if our findings can be generalized across languages. Our experiments suggest that a) a neural sequence-to-sequence TTS system should have a sufficient number of model parameters to produce high quality speech, b) it should also use a powerful encoder when it takes characters as inputs, and c) the encoder still has a room for improvement and needs to have an improved architecture to learn supra-segmental features more appropriately.


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Nix-TTS: An Incredibly Lightweight End-to-End Text-to-Speech Model via Non End-to-End Distillation

Mar 29, 2022
Rendi Chevi, Radityo Eko Prasojo, Alham Fikri Aji

We propose Nix-TTS, a lightweight neural TTS (Text-to-Speech) model achieved by applying knowledge distillation to a powerful yet large-sized generative TTS teacher model. Distilling a TTS model might sound unintuitive due to the generative and disjointed nature of TTS architectures, but pre-trained TTS models can be simplified into encoder and decoder structures, where the former encodes text into some latent representation and the latter decodes the latent into speech data. We devise a framework to distill each component in a non end-to-end fashion. Nix-TTS is end-to-end (vocoder-free) with only 5.23M parameters or up to 82\% reduction of the teacher model, it achieves over 3.26$\times$ and 8.36$\times$ inference speedup on Intel-i7 CPU and Raspberry Pi respectively, and still retains a fair voice naturalness and intelligibility compared to the teacher model. We publicly release Nix-TTS pretrained models and audio samples in English (https://github.com/rendchevi/nix-tts).

* Submitted to INTERSPEECH 2022. Associated materials can be seen in https://github.com/rendchevi/nix-tts 

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Enhancing Label Correlation Feedback in Multi-Label Text Classification via Multi-Task Learning

Jun 06, 2021
Ximing Zhang, Qian-Wen Zhang, Zhao Yan, Ruifang Liu, Yunbo Cao

In multi-label text classification (MLTC), each given document is associated with a set of correlated labels. To capture label correlations, previous classifier-chain and sequence-to-sequence models transform MLTC to a sequence prediction task. However, they tend to suffer from label order dependency, label combination over-fitting and error propagation problems. To address these problems, we introduce a novel approach with multi-task learning to enhance label correlation feedback. We first utilize a joint embedding (JE) mechanism to obtain the text and label representation simultaneously. In MLTC task, a document-label cross attention (CA) mechanism is adopted to generate a more discriminative document representation. Furthermore, we propose two auxiliary label co-occurrence prediction tasks to enhance label correlation learning: 1) Pairwise Label Co-occurrence Prediction (PLCP), and 2) Conditional Label Co-occurrence Prediction (CLCP). Experimental results on AAPD and RCV1-V2 datasets show that our method outperforms competitive baselines by a large margin. We analyze low-frequency label performance, label dependency, label combination diversity and coverage speed to show the effectiveness of our proposed method on label correlation learning.

* Accepted by ACL 2021 (Finding) 

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Spider: A Large-Scale Human-Labeled Dataset for Complex and Cross-Domain Semantic Parsing and Text-to-SQL Task

Oct 25, 2018
Tao Yu, Rui Zhang, Kai Yang, Michihiro Yasunaga, Dongxu Wang, Zifan Li, James Ma, Irene Li, Qingning Yao, Shanelle Roman, Zilin Zhang, Dragomir Radev

We present Spider, a large-scale, complex and cross-domain semantic parsing and text-to-SQL dataset annotated by 11 college students. It consists of 10,181 questions and 5,693 unique complex SQL queries on 200 databases with multiple tables, covering 138 different domains. We define a new complex and cross-domain semantic parsing and text-to-SQL task where different complex SQL queries and databases appear in train and test sets. In this way, the task requires the model to generalize well to both new SQL queries and new database schemas. Spider is distinct from most of the previous semantic parsing tasks because they all use a single database and the exact same programs in the train set and the test set. We experiment with various state-of-the-art models and the best model achieves only 12.4% exact matching accuracy on a database split setting. This shows that Spider presents a strong challenge for future research. Our dataset and task are publicly available at https://yale-lily.github.io/spider

* EMNLP 2018, Long Paper 

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Training Protocol Matters: Towards Accurate Scene Text Recognition via Training Protocol Searching

Mar 17, 2022
Xiaojie Chu, Yongtao Wang, Chunhua Shen, Jingdong Chen, Wei Chu

The development of scene text recognition (STR) in the era of deep learning has been mainly focused on novel architectures of STR models. However, training protocol (i.e., settings of the hyper-parameters involved in the training of STR models), which plays an equally important role in successfully training a good STR model, is under-explored for scene text recognition. In this work, we attempt to improve the accuracy of existing STR models by searching for optimal training protocol. Specifically, we develop a training protocol search algorithm, based on a newly designed search space and an efficient search algorithm using evolutionary optimization and proxy tasks. Experimental results show that our searched training protocol can improve the recognition accuracy of mainstream STR models by 2.7%~3.9%. In particular, with the searched training protocol, TRBA-Net achieves 2.1% higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art STR model (i.e., EFIFSTR), while the inference speed is 2.3x and 3.7x faster on CPU and GPU respectively. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the generalization ability of the training protocol found by our search method. Code is available at https://github.com/VDIGPKU/STR_TPSearch.


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Extending Text Informativeness Measures to Passage Interestingness Evaluation (Language Model vs. Word Embedding)

Apr 14, 2020
Carlos-Emiliano González-Gallardo, Eric SanJuan, Juan-Manuel Torres-Moreno

Standard informativeness measures used to evaluate Automatic Text Summarization mostly rely on n-gram overlapping between the automatic summary and the reference summaries. These measures differ from the metric they use (cosine, ROUGE, Kullback-Leibler, Logarithm Similarity, etc.) and the bag of terms they consider (single words, word n-grams, entities, nuggets, etc.). Recent word embedding approaches offer a continuous alternative to discrete approaches based on the presence/absence of a text unit. Informativeness measures have been extended to Focus Information Retrieval evaluation involving a user's information need represented by short queries. In particular for the task of CLEF-INEX Tweet Contextualization, tweet contents have been considered as queries. In this paper we define the concept of Interestingness as a generalization of Informativeness, whereby the information need is diverse and formalized as an unknown set of implicit queries. We then study the ability of state of the art Informativeness measures to cope with this generalization. Lately we show that with this new framework, standard word embeddings outperforms discrete measures only on uni-grams, however bi-grams seems to be a key point of interestingness evaluation. Lastly we prove that the CLEF-INEX Tweet Contextualization 2012 Logarithm Similarity measure provides best results.


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Feature Assisted bi-directional LSTM Model for Protein-Protein Interaction Identification from Biomedical Texts

Jul 05, 2018
Shweta Yadav, Ankit Kumar, Asif Ekbal, Sriparna Saha, Pushpak Bhattacharyya

Knowledge about protein-protein interactions is essential in understanding the biological processes such as metabolic pathways, DNA replication, and transcription etc. However, a majority of the existing Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) systems are dependent primarily on the scientific literature, which is yet not accessible as a structured database. Thus, efficient information extraction systems are required for identifying PPI information from the large collection of biomedical texts. Most of the existing systems model the PPI extraction task as a classification problem and are tailored to the handcrafted feature set including domain dependent features. In this paper, we present a novel method based on deep bidirectional long short-term memory (B-LSTM) technique that exploits word sequences and dependency path related information to identify PPI information from text. This model leverages joint modeling of proteins and relations in a single unified framework, which we name as Shortest Dependency Path B-LSTM (sdpLSTM) model. We perform experiments on two popular benchmark PPI datasets, namely AiMed & BioInfer. The evaluation shows the F1-score values of 86.45% and 77.35% on AiMed and BioInfer, respectively. Comparisons with the existing systems show that our proposed approach attains state-of-the-art performance.


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Benchmark dataset of memes with text transcriptions for automatic detection of multi-modal misogynistic content

Jun 15, 2021
Francesca Gasparini, Giulia Rizzi, Aurora Saibene, Elisabetta Fersini

In this paper we present a benchmark dataset generated as part of a project for automatic identification of misogyny within online content, which focuses in particular on memes. The benchmark here described is composed of 800 memes collected from the most popular social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Reddit, and consulting websites dedicated to collection and creation of memes. To gather misogynistic memes, specific keywords that refer to misogynistic content have been considered as search criterion, considering different manifestations of hatred against women, such as body shaming, stereotyping, objectification and violence. In parallel, memes with no misogynist content have been manually downloaded from the same web sources. Among all the collected memes, three domain experts have selected a dataset of 800 memes equally balanced between misogynistic and non-misogynistic ones. This dataset has been validated through a crowdsourcing platform, involving 60 subjects for the labelling process, in order to collect three evaluations for each instance. Two further binary labels have been collected from both the experts and the crowdsourcing platform, for memes evaluated as misogynistic, concerning aggressiveness and irony. Finally for each meme, the text has been manually transcribed. The dataset provided is thus composed of the 800 memes, the labels given by the experts and those obtained by the crowdsourcing validation, and the transcribed texts. This data can be used to approach the problem of automatic detection of misogynistic content on the Web relying on both textual and visual cues, facing phenomenons that are growing every day such as cybersexism and technology-facilitated violence.


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