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Deception detection in text and its relation to the cultural dimension of individualism/collectivism

May 26, 2021
Katerina Papantoniou, Panagiotis Papadakos, Theodore Patkos, Giorgos Flouris, Ion Androutsopoulos, Dimitris Plexousakis

Deception detection is a task with many applications both in direct physical and in computer-mediated communication. Our focus is on automatic deception detection in text across cultures. We view culture through the prism of the individualism/collectivism dimension and we approximate culture by using country as a proxy. Having as a starting point recent conclusions drawn from the social psychology discipline, we explore if differences in the usage of specific linguistic features of deception across cultures can be confirmed and attributed to norms in respect to the individualism/collectivism divide. We also investigate if a universal feature set for cross-cultural text deception detection tasks exists. We evaluate the predictive power of different feature sets and approaches. We create culture/language-aware classifiers by experimenting with a wide range of n-gram features based on phonology, morphology and syntax, other linguistic cues like word and phoneme counts, pronouns use, etc., and token embeddings. We conducted our experiments over 11 datasets from 5 languages i.e., English, Dutch, Russian, Spanish and Romanian, from six countries (US, Belgium, India, Russia, Mexico and Romania), and we applied two classification methods i.e, logistic regression and fine-tuned BERT models. The results showed that our task is fairly complex and demanding. There are indications that some linguistic cues of deception have cultural origins, and are consistent in the context of diverse domains and dataset settings for the same language. This is more evident for the usage of pronouns and the expression of sentiment in deceptive language. The results of this work show that the automatic deception detection across cultures and languages cannot be handled in a unified manner, and that such approaches should be augmented with knowledge about cultural differences and the domains of interest.

* Accepted for publication in Natural Language Engineering journal 

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Deep Learning Based Multi-Label Text Classification of UNGA Resolutions

Apr 01, 2020
Francesco Sovrano, Monica Palmirani, Fabio Vitali

The main goal of this research is to produce a useful software for United Nations (UN), that could help to speed up the process of qualifying the UN documents following the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in order to monitor the progresses at the world level to fight poverty, discrimination, climate changes. In fact human labeling of UN documents would be a daunting task given the size of the impacted corpus. Thus, automatic labeling must be adopted at least as a first step of a multi-phase process to reduce the overall effort of cataloguing and classifying. Deep Learning (DL) is nowadays one of the most powerful tools for state-of-the-art (SOTA) AI for this task, but very often it comes with the cost of an expensive and error-prone preparation of a training-set. In the case of multi-label text classification of domain-specific text it seems that we cannot effectively adopt DL without a big-enough domain-specific training-set. In this paper, we show that this is not always true. In fact we propose a novel method that is able, through statistics like TF-IDF, to exploit pre-trained SOTA DL models (such as the Universal Sentence Encoder) without any need for traditional transfer learning or any other expensive training procedure. We show the effectiveness of our method in a legal context, by classifying UN Resolutions according to their most related SDGs.

* 10 pages, 10 figures, accepted paper at ICEGOV 2020 

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TexSmart: A Text Understanding System for Fine-Grained NER and Enhanced Semantic Analysis

Dec 31, 2020
Haisong Zhang, Lemao Liu, Haiyun Jiang, Yangming Li, Enbo Zhao, Kun Xu, Linfeng Song, Suncong Zheng, Botong Zhou, Jianchen Zhu, Xiao Feng, Tao Chen, Tao Yang, Dong Yu, Feng Zhang, Zhanhui Kang, Shuming Shi

This technique report introduces TexSmart, a text understanding system that supports fine-grained named entity recognition (NER) and enhanced semantic analysis functionalities. Compared to most previous publicly available text understanding systems and tools, TexSmart holds some unique features. First, the NER function of TexSmart supports over 1,000 entity types, while most other public tools typically support several to (at most) dozens of entity types. Second, TexSmart introduces new semantic analysis functions like semantic expansion and deep semantic representation, that are absent in most previous systems. Third, a spectrum of algorithms (from very fast algorithms to those that are relatively slow but more accurate) are implemented for one function in TexSmart, to fulfill the requirements of different academic and industrial applications. The adoption of unsupervised or weakly-supervised algorithms is especially emphasized, with the goal of easily updating our models to include fresh data with less human annotation efforts. The main contents of this report include major functions of TexSmart, algorithms for achieving these functions, how to use the TexSmart toolkit and Web APIs, and evaluation results of some key algorithms.

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Joint training framework for text-to-speech and voice conversion using multi-source Tacotron and WaveNet

Apr 07, 2019
Mingyang Zhang, Xin Wang, Fuming Fang, Haizhou Li, Junichi Yamagishi

We investigated the training of a shared model for both text-to-speech (TTS) and voice conversion (VC) tasks. We propose using an extended model architecture of Tacotron, that is a multi-source sequence-to-sequence model with a dual attention mechanism as the shared model for both the TTS and VC tasks. This model can accomplish these two different tasks respectively according to the type of input. An end-to-end speech synthesis task is conducted when the model is given text as the input while a sequence-to-sequence voice conversion task is conducted when it is given the speech of a source speaker as the input. Waveform signals are generated by using WaveNet, which is conditioned by using a predicted mel-spectrogram. We propose jointly training a shared model as a decoder for a target speaker that supports multiple sources. Listening experiments show that our proposed multi-source encoder-decoder model can efficiently achieve both the TTS and VC tasks.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2019, Graz, Austria 

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RYANSQL: Recursively Applying Sketch-based Slot Fillings for Complex Text-to-SQL in Cross-Domain Databases

Apr 07, 2020
DongHyun Choi, Myeong Cheol Shin, EungGyun Kim, Dong Ryeol Shin

Text-to-SQL is the problem of converting a user question into an SQL query, when the question and database are given. In this paper, we present a neural network approach called RYANSQL (Recursively Yielding Annotation Network for SQL) to solve complex Text-to-SQL tasks for cross-domain databases. State-ment Position Code (SPC) is defined to trans-form a nested SQL query into a set of non-nested SELECT statements; a sketch-based slot filling approach is proposed to synthesize each SELECT statement for its corresponding SPC. Additionally, two input manipulation methods are presented to improve generation performance further. RYANSQL achieved 58.2% accuracy on the challenging Spider benchmark, which is a 3.2%p improvement over previous state-of-the-art approaches. At the time of writing, RYANSQL achieves the first position on the Spider leaderboard.

* 10 pages, 1 figure 

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MedCATTrainer: A Biomedical Free Text Annotation Interface with Active Learning and Research Use Case Specific Customisation

Jul 16, 2019
Thomas Searle, Zeljko Kraljevic, Rebecca Bendayan, Daniel Bean, Richard Dobson

We present MedCATTrainer an interface for building, improving and customising a given Named Entity Recognition and Linking (NER+L) model for biomedical domain text. NER+L is often used as a first step in deriving value from clinical text. Collecting labelled data for training models is difficult due to the need for specialist domain knowledge. MedCATTrainer offers an interactive web-interface to inspect and improve recognised entities from an underlying NER+L model via active learning. Secondary use of data for clinical research often has task and context specific criteria. MedCATTrainer provides a further interface to define and collect supervised learning training data for researcher specific use cases. Initial results suggest our approach allows for efficient and accurate collection of research use case specific training data.

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Twitter-Network Topic Model: A Full Bayesian Treatment for Social Network and Text Modeling

Sep 22, 2016
Kar Wai Lim, Changyou Chen, Wray Buntine

Twitter data is extremely noisy -- each tweet is short, unstructured and with informal language, a challenge for current topic modeling. On the other hand, tweets are accompanied by extra information such as authorship, hashtags and the user-follower network. Exploiting this additional information, we propose the Twitter-Network (TN) topic model to jointly model the text and the social network in a full Bayesian nonparametric way. The TN topic model employs the hierarchical Poisson-Dirichlet processes (PDP) for text modeling and a Gaussian process random function model for social network modeling. We show that the TN topic model significantly outperforms several existing nonparametric models due to its flexibility. Moreover, the TN topic model enables additional informative inference such as authors' interests, hashtag analysis, as well as leading to further applications such as author recommendation, automatic topic labeling and hashtag suggestion. Note our general inference framework can readily be applied to other topic models with embedded PDP nodes.

* NIPS 2013 Topic Models: Computation, Application, and Evaluation, pp. 1-5. Google Sites. 2013 
* NIPS workshop paper 

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CRD-CGAN: Category-Consistent and Relativistic Constraints for Diverse Text-to-Image Generation

Jul 28, 2021
Tao Hu, Chengjiang Long, Chunxia Xiao

Generating photo-realistic images from a text description is a challenging problem in computer vision. Previous works have shown promising performance to generate synthetic images conditional on text by Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). In this paper, we focus on the category-consistent and relativistic diverse constraints to optimize the diversity of synthetic images. Based on those constraints, a category-consistent and relativistic diverse conditional GAN (CRD-CGAN) is proposed to synthesize $K$ photo-realistic images simultaneously. We use the attention loss and diversity loss to improve the sensitivity of the GAN to word attention and noises. Then, we employ the relativistic conditional loss to estimate the probability of relatively real or fake for synthetic images, which can improve the performance of basic conditional loss. Finally, we introduce a category-consistent loss to alleviate the over-category issues between K synthetic images. We evaluate our approach using the Birds-200-2011, Oxford-102 flower and MSCOCO 2014 datasets, and the extensive experiments demonstrate superiority of the proposed method in comparison with state-of-the-art methods in terms of photorealistic and diversity of the generated synthetic images.

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Plan ahead: Self-Supervised Text Planning for Paragraph Completion Task

Oct 11, 2020
Dongyeop Kang, Eduard Hovy

Despite the recent success of contextualized language models on various NLP tasks, language model itself cannot capture textual coherence of a long, multi-sentence document (e.g., a paragraph). Humans often make structural decisions on what and how to say about before making utterances. Guiding surface realization with such high-level decisions and structuring text in a coherent way is essentially called a planning process. Where can the model learn such high-level coherence? A paragraph itself contains various forms of inductive coherence signals called self-supervision in this work, such as sentence orders, topical keywords, rhetorical structures, and so on. Motivated by that, this work proposes a new paragraph completion task PARCOM; predicting masked sentences in a paragraph. However, the task suffers from predicting and selecting appropriate topical content with respect to the given context. To address that, we propose a self-supervised text planner SSPlanner that predicts what to say first (content prediction), then guides the pretrained language model (surface realization) using the predicted content. SSPlanner outperforms the baseline generation models on the paragraph completion task in both automatic and human evaluation. We also find that a combination of noun and verb types of keywords is the most effective for content selection. As more number of content keywords are provided, overall generation quality also increases.

* EMNLP 2020 

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Measuring a Texts Fairness Dimensions Using Machine Learning Based on Social Psychological Factors

Nov 19, 2021
A. Izzidien, P. Romero, S. Fitz, D. Stillwell

Fairness is a principal social value that can be observed in civilisations around the world. A manifestation of this is in social agreements, often described in texts, such as contracts. Yet, despite the prevalence of such, a fairness metric for texts describing a social act remains wanting. To address this, we take a step back to consider the problem based on first principals. Instead of using rules or templates, we utilise social psychology literature to determine the principal factors that humans use when making a fairness assessment. We then attempt to digitise these using word embeddings into a multi-dimensioned sentence level fairness perceptions vector to serve as an approximation for these fairness perceptions. The method leverages a pro-social bias within word embeddings, for which we obtain an F1= 81.0. A second approach, using PCA and ML based on the said fairness approximation vector produces an F1 score of 86.2. We detail improvements that can be made in the methodology to incorporate the projection of sentence embedding on to a subspace representation of fairness.

* 38 pages, 9 figures Change in Author details Added acknowledgment section on page 29 

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