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"Text": models, code, and papers

From Solving a Problem Boldly to Cutting the Gordian Knot: Idiomatic Text Generation

May 11, 2021
Jianing Zhou, Hongyu Gong, Srihari Nanniyur, Suma Bhat

We study a new application for text generation -- idiomatic sentence generation -- which aims to transfer literal phrases in sentences into their idiomatic counterparts. Inspired by psycholinguistic theories of idiom use in one's native language, we propose a novel approach for this task, which retrieves the appropriate idiom for a given literal sentence, extracts the span of the sentence to be replaced by the idiom, and generates the idiomatic sentence by using a neural model to combine the retrieved idiom and the remainder of the sentence. Experiments on a novel dataset created for this task show that our model is able to effectively transfer literal sentences into idiomatic ones. Furthermore, automatic and human evaluations show that for this task, the proposed model outperforms a series of competitive baseline models for text generation.

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Training with reduced precision of a support vector machine model for text classification

Jul 17, 2020
Dominik Żurek, Marcin Pietroń

This paper presents the impact of using quantization on the efficiency of multi-class text classification in the training process of a support vector machine (SVM). This work is focused on comparing the efficiency of SVM model trained using reduced precision with its original form. The main advantage of using quantization is decrease in computation time and in memory footprint on the dedicated hardware platform which supports low precision computation like GPU (16-bit) or FPGA (any bit-width). The paper presents the impact of a precision reduction of the SVM training process on text classification accuracy. The implementation of the CPU was performed using the OpenMP library. Additionally, the results of the implementation of the GPU using double, single and half precision are presented.

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Predicting Prosodic Prominence from Text with Pre-trained Contextualized Word Representations

Aug 06, 2019
Aarne Talman, Antti Suni, Hande Celikkanat, Sofoklis Kakouros, Jörg Tiedemann, Martti Vainio

In this paper we introduce a new natural language processing dataset and benchmark for predicting prosodic prominence from written text. To our knowledge this will be the largest publicly available dataset with prosodic labels. We describe the dataset construction and the resulting benchmark dataset in detail and train a number of different models ranging from feature-based classifiers to neural network systems for the prediction of discretized prosodic prominence. We show that pre-trained contextualized word representations from BERT outperform the other models even with less than 10% of the training data. Finally we discuss the dataset in light of the results and point to future research and plans for further improving both the dataset and methods of predicting prosodic prominence from text. The dataset and the code for the models are publicly available.

* NoDaLiDa 2019 camera ready 

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Experiments with POS Tagging Code-mixed Indian Social Media Text

Oct 31, 2016
Prakash B. Pimpale, Raj Nath Patel

This paper presents Centre for Development of Advanced Computing Mumbai's (CDACM) submission to the NLP Tools Contest on Part-Of-Speech (POS) Tagging For Code-mixed Indian Social Media Text (POSCMISMT) 2015 (collocated with ICON 2015). We submitted results for Hindi (hi), Bengali (bn), and Telugu (te) languages mixed with English (en). In this paper, we have described our approaches to the POS tagging techniques, we exploited for this task. Machine learning has been used to POS tag the mixed language text. For POS tagging, distributed representations of words in vector space (word2vec) for feature extraction and Log-linear models have been tried. We report our work on all three languages hi, bn, and te mixed with en.

* In the Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON 2015) 
* 3 Pages, Published in the Proceedings of the Tool Contest on POS Tagging for Code-mixed Indian Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, and Whatsapp) Text 

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RRPN++: Guidance Towards More Accurate Scene Text Detection

Sep 28, 2020
Jianqi Ma

RRPN is among the outstanding scene text detection approaches, but the manually-designed anchor and coarse proposal refinement make the performance still far from perfection. In this paper, we propose RRPN++ to exploit the potential of RRPN-based model by several improvements. Based on RRPN, we propose the Anchor-free Pyramid Proposal Networks (APPN) to generate first-stage proposals, which adopts the anchor-free design to reduce proposal number and accelerate the inference speed. In our second stage, both the detection branch and the recognition branch are incorporated to perform multi-task learning. In inference stage, the detection branch outputs the proposal refinement and the recognition branch predicts the transcript of the refined text region. Further, the recognition branch also helps rescore the proposals and eliminate the false positive proposals by the jointing filtering strategy. With these enhancements, we boost the detection results by $6\%$ of F-measure in ICDAR2015 compared to RRPN. Experiments conducted on other benchmarks also illustrate the superior performance and efficiency of our model.

* Tech report, code will be released 

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Temporal Embeddings and Transformer Models for Narrative Text Understanding

Mar 19, 2020
Vani K, Simone Mellace, Alessandro Antonucci

We present two deep learning approaches to narrative text understanding for character relationship modelling. The temporal evolution of these relations is described by dynamic word embeddings, that are designed to learn semantic changes over time. An empirical analysis of the corresponding character trajectories shows that such approaches are effective in depicting dynamic evolution. A supervised learning approach based on the state-of-the-art transformer model BERT is used instead to detect static relations between characters. The empirical validation shows that such events (e.g., two characters belonging to the same family) might be spotted with good accuracy, even when using automatically annotated data. This provides a deeper understanding of narrative plots based on the identification of key facts. Standard clustering techniques are finally used for character de-aliasing, a necessary pre-processing step for both approaches. Overall, deep learning models appear to be suitable for narrative text understanding, while also providing a challenging and unexploited benchmark for general natural language understanding.

* Presented at the Third International Workshop on Narrative Extraction from Texts (Text2Story 2020) held in conjunction with the 42nd European Conference on Information Retrieval 

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Investigating sanity checks for saliency maps with image and text classification

Jun 08, 2021
Narine Kokhlikyan, Vivek Miglani, Bilal Alsallakh, Miguel Martin, Orion Reblitz-Richardson

Saliency maps have shown to be both useful and misleading for explaining model predictions especially in the context of images. In this paper, we perform sanity checks for text modality and show that the conclusions made for image do not directly transfer to text. We also analyze the effects of the input multiplier in certain saliency maps using similarity scores, max-sensitivity and infidelity evaluation metrics. Our observations reveal that the input multiplier carries input's structural patterns in explanation maps, thus leading to similar results regardless of the choice of model parameters. We also show that the smoothness of a Neural Network (NN) function can affect the quality of saliency-based explanations. Our investigations reveal that replacing ReLUs with Softplus and MaxPool with smoother variants such as LogSumExp (LSE) can lead to explanations that are more reliable based on the infidelity evaluation metric.

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DeepStyle: User Style Embedding for Authorship Attribution of Short Texts

Mar 14, 2021
Zhiqiang Hu, Roy Ka-Wei Lee, Lei Wang, Ee-Peng Lim, Bo Dai

Authorship attribution (AA), which is the task of finding the owner of a given text, is an important and widely studied research topic with many applications. Recent works have shown that deep learning methods could achieve significant accuracy improvement for the AA task. Nevertheless, most of these proposed methods represent user posts using a single type of feature (e.g., word bi-grams) and adopt a text classification approach to address the task. Furthermore, these methods offer very limited explainability of the AA results. In this paper, we address these limitations by proposing DeepStyle, a novel embedding-based framework that learns the representations of users' salient writing styles. We conduct extensive experiments on two real-world datasets from Twitter and Weibo. Our experiment results show that DeepStyle outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines on the AA task.

* Paper accepted for 4th APWeb-WAIM Joint Conference on Web and Big Data 

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"What Do You Mean by That?" A Parser-Independent Interactive Approach for Enhancing Text-to-SQL

Nov 09, 2020
Yuntao Li, Bei Chen, Qian Liu, Yan Gao, Jian-Guang Lou, Yan Zhang, Dongmei Zhang

In Natural Language Interfaces to Databases systems, the text-to-SQL technique allows users to query databases by using natural language questions. Though significant progress in this area has been made recently, most parsers may fall short when they are deployed in real systems. One main reason stems from the difficulty of fully understanding the users' natural language questions. In this paper, we include human in the loop and present a novel parser-independent interactive approach (PIIA) that interacts with users using multi-choice questions and can easily work with arbitrary parsers. Experiments were conducted on two cross-domain datasets, the WikiSQL and the more complex Spider, with five state-of-the-art parsers. These demonstrated that PIIA is capable of enhancing the text-to-SQL performance with limited interaction turns by using both simulation and human evaluation.

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