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The best of both worlds: stochastic and adversarial episodic MDPs with unknown transition

Jun 08, 2021
Tiancheng Jin, Longbo Huang, Haipeng Luo

We consider the best-of-both-worlds problem for learning an episodic Markov Decision Process through $T$ episodes, with the goal of achieving $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(\sqrt{T})$ regret when the losses are adversarial and simultaneously $\mathcal{O}(\text{polylog}(T))$ regret when the losses are (almost) stochastic. Recent work by [Jin and Luo, 2020] achieves this goal when the fixed transition is known, and leaves the case of unknown transition as a major open question. In this work, we resolve this open problem by using the same Follow-the-Regularized-Leader ($\text{FTRL}$) framework together with a set of new techniques. Specifically, we first propose a loss-shifting trick in the $\text{FTRL}$ analysis, which greatly simplifies the approach of [Jin and Luo, 2020] and already improves their results for the known transition case. Then, we extend this idea to the unknown transition case and develop a novel analysis which upper bounds the transition estimation error by (a fraction of) the regret itself in the stochastic setting, a key property to ensure $\mathcal{O}(\text{polylog}(T))$ regret.

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MHSAN: Multi-Head Self-Attention Network for Visual Semantic Embedding

Jan 11, 2020
Geondo Park, Chihye Han, Wonjun Yoon, Daeshik Kim

Visual-semantic embedding enables various tasks such as image-text retrieval, image captioning, and visual question answering. The key to successful visual-semantic embedding is to express visual and textual data properly by accounting for their intricate relationship. While previous studies have achieved much advance by encoding the visual and textual data into a joint space where similar concepts are closely located, they often represent data by a single vector ignoring the presence of multiple important components in an image or text. Thus, in addition to the joint embedding space, we propose a novel multi-head self-attention network to capture various components of visual and textual data by attending to important parts in data. Our approach achieves the new state-of-the-art results in image-text retrieval tasks on MS-COCO and Flicker30K datasets. Through the visualization of the attention maps that capture distinct semantic components at multiple positions in the image and the text, we demonstrate that our method achieves an effective and interpretable visual-semantic joint space.

* Accepted by the 2020 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV 20), 9 pages, 5 figures 

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TransNets: Learning to Transform for Recommendation

Jun 30, 2017
Rose Catherine, William Cohen

Recently, deep learning methods have been shown to improve the performance of recommender systems over traditional methods, especially when review text is available. For example, a recent model, DeepCoNN, uses neural nets to learn one latent representation for the text of all reviews written by a target user, and a second latent representation for the text of all reviews for a target item, and then combines these latent representations to obtain state-of-the-art performance on recommendation tasks. We show that (unsurprisingly) much of the predictive value of review text comes from reviews of the target user for the target item. We then introduce a way in which this information can be used in recommendation, even when the target user's review for the target item is not available. Our model, called TransNets, extends the DeepCoNN model by introducing an additional latent layer representing the target user-target item pair. We then regularize this layer, at training time, to be similar to another latent representation of the target user's review of the target item. We show that TransNets and extensions of it improve substantially over the previous state-of-the-art.

* Accepted for publication in the 11th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems (RecSys 2017) 

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Text Classification: A Sequential Reading Approach

Aug 29, 2011
Gabriel Dulac-Arnold, Ludovic Denoyer, Patrick Gallinari

We propose to model the text classification process as a sequential decision process. In this process, an agent learns to classify documents into topics while reading the document sentences sequentially and learns to stop as soon as enough information was read for deciding. The proposed algorithm is based on a modelisation of Text Classification as a Markov Decision Process and learns by using Reinforcement Learning. Experiments on four different classical mono-label corpora show that the proposed approach performs comparably to classical SVM approaches for large training sets, and better for small training sets. In addition, the model automatically adapts its reading process to the quantity of training information provided.

* Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2011, Volume 6611/2011, 411-423 
* ECIR2011 

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Generating Math Word Problems from Equations with Topic Controlling and Commonsense Enforcement

Dec 14, 2020
Tianyang Cao, Shuang Zeng, Songge Zhao, Mairgup Mansur, Baobao Chang

Recent years have seen significant advancement in text generation tasks with the help of neural language models. However, there exists a challenging task: generating math problem text based on mathematical equations, which has made little progress so far. In this paper, we present a novel equation-to-problem text generation model. In our model, 1) we propose a flexible scheme to effectively encode math equations, we then enhance the equation encoder by a Varitional Autoen-coder (VAE) 2) given a math equation, we perform topic selection, followed by which a dynamic topic memory mechanism is introduced to restrict the topic distribution of the generator 3) to avoid commonsense violation in traditional generation model, we pretrain word embedding with background knowledge graph (KG), and we link decoded words to related words in KG, targeted at injecting background knowledge into our model. We evaluate our model through both automatic metrices and human evaluation, experiments demonstrate our model outperforms baseline and previous models in both accuracy and richness of generated problem text.

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Go Figure! A Meta Evaluation of Factuality in Summarization

Oct 24, 2020
Saadia Gabriel, Asli Celikyilmaz, Rahul Jha, Yejin Choi, Jianfeng Gao

Text generation models can generate factually inconsistent text containing distorted or fabricated facts about the source text. Recent work has focused on building evaluation models to verify the factual correctness of semantically constrained text generation tasks such as document summarization. While the field of factuality evaluation is growing fast, we don't have well-defined criteria for measuring the effectiveness, generalizability, reliability, or sensitivity of the factuality metrics. Focusing on these aspects, in this paper, we introduce a meta-evaluation framework for evaluating factual consistency metrics. We introduce five necessary, common-sense conditions for effective factuality metrics and experiment with nine recent factuality metrics using synthetic and human-labeled factuality data from short news, long news and dialogue summarization domains. Our framework enables assessing the efficiency of any new factual consistency metric on a variety of dimensions over multiple summarization domains and can be easily extended with new meta-evaluation criteria. We also present our conclusions towards standardizing the factuality evaluation metrics.

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A Multitask Learning Approach for Diacritic Restoration

Jun 07, 2020
Sawsan Alqahtani, Ajay Mishra, Mona Diab

In many languages like Arabic, diacritics are used to specify pronunciations as well as meanings. Such diacritics are often omitted in written text, increasing the number of possible pronunciations and meanings for a word. This results in a more ambiguous text making computational processing on such text more difficult. Diacritic restoration is the task of restoring missing diacritics in the written text. Most state-of-the-art diacritic restoration models are built on character level information which helps generalize the model to unseen data, but presumably lose useful information at the word level. Thus, to compensate for this loss, we investigate the use of multi-task learning to jointly optimize diacritic restoration with related NLP problems namely word segmentation, part-of-speech tagging, and syntactic diacritization. We use Arabic as a case study since it has sufficient data resources for tasks that we consider in our joint modeling. Our joint models significantly outperform the baselines and are comparable to the state-of-the-art models that are more complex relying on morphological analyzers and/or a lot more data (e.g. dialectal data).

* ACL 2020 

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Variation of word frequencies in Russian literary texts

May 05, 2015
Vladislav Kargin

We study the variation of word frequencies in Russian literary texts. Our findings indicate that the standard deviation of a word's frequency across texts depends on its average frequency according to a power law with exponent $0.62,$ showing that the rarer words have a relatively larger degree of frequency volatility (i.e., "burstiness"). Several latent factors models have been estimated to investigate the structure of the word frequency distribution. The dependence of a word's frequency volatility on its average frequency can be explained by the asymmetry in the distribution of latent factors.

* 17 pages 

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An Amharic News Text classification Dataset

Mar 10, 2021
Israel Abebe Azime, Nebil Mohammed

In NLP, text classification is one of the primary problems we try to solve and its uses in language analyses are indisputable. The lack of labeled training data made it harder to do these tasks in low resource languages like Amharic. The task of collecting, labeling, annotating, and making valuable this kind of data will encourage junior researchers, schools, and machine learning practitioners to implement existing classification models in their language. In this short paper, we aim to introduce the Amharic text classification dataset that consists of more than 50k news articles that were categorized into 6 classes. This dataset is made available with easy baseline performances to encourage studies and better performance experiments.

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Effective Subword Segmentation for Text Comprehension

Nov 06, 2018
Zhuosheng Zhang, Hai Zhao, Kangwei Ling, Jiangtong Li, Zuchao Li, Shexia He

Character-level representations have been broadly adopted to alleviate the problem of effectively representing rare or complex words. However, character itself is not a natural minimal linguistic unit for representation or word embedding composing due to ignoring the linguistic coherence of consecutive characters inside word. This paper presents a general subword-augmented embedding framework for learning and composing computationally-derived subword-level representations. We survey a series of unsupervised segmentation methods for subword acquisition and different subword-augmented strategies for text understanding, showing that subword-augmented embedding significantly improves our baselines in multiple text understanding tasks on both English and Chinese languages.

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