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Logiformer: A Two-Branch Graph Transformer Network for Interpretable Logical Reasoning

May 02, 2022
Fangzhi Xu, Qika Lin, Jun Liu, Yudai Pan, Lingling Zhang

Machine reading comprehension has aroused wide concerns, since it explores the potential of model for text understanding. To further equip the machine with the reasoning capability, the challenging task of logical reasoning is proposed. Previous works on logical reasoning have proposed some strategies to extract the logical units from different aspects. However, there still remains a challenge to model the long distance dependency among the logical units. Also, it is demanding to uncover the logical structures of the text and further fuse the discrete logic to the continuous text embedding. To tackle the above issues, we propose an end-to-end model Logiformer which utilizes a two-branch graph transformer network for logical reasoning of text. Firstly, we introduce different extraction strategies to split the text into two sets of logical units, and construct the logical graph and the syntax graph respectively. The logical graph models the causal relations for the logical branch while the syntax graph captures the co-occurrence relations for the syntax branch. Secondly, to model the long distance dependency, the node sequence from each graph is fed into the fully connected graph transformer structures. The two adjacent matrices are viewed as the attention biases for the graph transformer layers, which map the discrete logical structures to the continuous text embedding space. Thirdly, a dynamic gate mechanism and a question-aware self-attention module are introduced before the answer prediction to update the features. The reasoning process provides the interpretability by employing the logical units, which are consistent with human cognition. The experimental results show the superiority of our model, which outperforms the state-of-the-art single model on two logical reasoning benchmarks.

* Accepted by SIGIR 2022 

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amLite: Amharic Transliteration Using Key Map Dictionary

Sep 16, 2015
Tadele Tedla

amLite is a framework developed to map ASCII transliterated Amharic texts back to the original Amharic letter texts. The aim of such a framework is to make existing Amharic linguistic data consistent and interoperable among researchers. For achieving the objective, a key map dictionary is constructed using the possible ASCII combinations actively in use for transliterating Amharic letters; and a mapping of the combinations to the corresponding Amharic letters is done. The mapping is then used to replace the Amharic linguistic text back to form the original Amharic letters text. The framework indicated 97.7, 99.7 and 98.4 percentage accuracy on converting the three sample random test data. It is; however, possible to improve the accuracy of the framework by adding an exception to the implementation of the algorithm, or by preprocessing the input text prior to conversion. This paper outlined the rationales behind the need for developing the framework and the processes undertaken in the development.

* 6 pages 

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Outline to Story: Fine-grained Controllable Story Generation from Cascaded Events

Jan 04, 2021
Le Fang, Tao Zeng, Chaochun Liu, Liefeng Bo, Wen Dong, Changyou Chen

Large-scale pretrained language models have shown thrilling generation capabilities, especially when they generate consistent long text in thousands of words with ease. However, users of these models can only control the prefix of sentences or certain global aspects of generated text. It is challenging to simultaneously achieve fine-grained controllability and preserve the state-of-the-art unconditional text generation capability. In this paper, we first propose a new task named "Outline to Story" (O2S) as a test bed for fine-grained controllable generation of long text, which generates a multi-paragraph story from cascaded events, i.e. a sequence of outline events that guide subsequent paragraph generation. We then create dedicate datasets for future benchmarks, built by state-of-the-art keyword extraction techniques. Finally, we propose an extremely simple yet strong baseline method for the O2S task, which fine tunes pre-trained language models on augmented sequences of outline-story pairs with simple language modeling objective. Our method does not introduce any new parameters or perform any architecture modification, except several special tokens as delimiters to build augmented sequences. Extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate state-of-the-art conditional story generation performance with our model, achieving better fine-grained controllability and user flexibility. Our paper is among the first ones by our knowledge to propose a model and to create datasets for the task of "outline to story". Our work also instantiates research interest of fine-grained controllable generation of open-domain long text, where controlling inputs are represented by short text.

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MedICaT: A Dataset of Medical Images, Captions, and Textual References

Oct 12, 2020
Sanjay Subramanian, Lucy Lu Wang, Sachin Mehta, Ben Bogin, Madeleine van Zuylen, Sravanthi Parasa, Sameer Singh, Matt Gardner, Hannaneh Hajishirzi

Understanding the relationship between figures and text is key to scientific document understanding. Medical figures in particular are quite complex, often consisting of several subfigures (75% of figures in our dataset), with detailed text describing their content. Previous work studying figures in scientific papers focused on classifying figure content rather than understanding how images relate to the text. To address challenges in figure retrieval and figure-to-text alignment, we introduce MedICaT, a dataset of medical images in context. MedICaT consists of 217K images from 131K open access biomedical papers, and includes captions, inline references for 74% of figures, and manually annotated subfigures and subcaptions for a subset of figures. Using MedICaT, we introduce the task of subfigure to subcaption alignment in compound figures and demonstrate the utility of inline references in image-text matching. Our data and code can be accessed at

* EMNLP-Findings 2020 

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A Neural Comprehensive Ranker (NCR) for Open-Domain Question Answering

Oct 05, 2017
Bin Bi, Hao Ma

This paper proposes a novel neural machine reading model for open-domain question answering at scale. Existing machine comprehension models typically assume that a short piece of relevant text containing answers is already identified and given to the models, from which the models are designed to extract answers. This assumption, however, is not realistic for building a large-scale open-domain question answering system which requires both deep text understanding and identifying relevant text from corpus simultaneously. In this paper, we introduce Neural Comprehensive Ranker (NCR) that integrates both passage ranking and answer extraction in one single framework. A Q&A system based on this framework allows users to issue an open-domain question without needing to provide a piece of text that must contain the answer. Experiments show that the unified NCR model is able to outperform the states-of-the-art in both retrieval of relevant text and answer extraction.

* A paper with a similar method has been published earlier at arXiv:1706.04815 The authors believe there is no need for a separate publication 

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Using sentence connectors for evaluating MT output

Aug 29, 1996
Eric M. Visser, Masaru Fuji

This paper elaborates on the design of a machine translation evaluation method that aims to determine to what degree the meaning of an original text is preserved in translation, without looking into the grammatical correctness of its constituent sentences. The basic idea is to have a human evaluator take the sentences of the translated text and, for each of these sentences, determine the semantic relationship that exists between it and the sentence immediately preceding it. In order to minimise evaluator dependence, relations between sentences are expressed in terms of the conjuncts that can connect them, rather than through explicit categories. For an n-sentence text this results in a list of n-1 sentence-to-sentence relationships, which we call the text's connectivity profile. This can then be compared to the connectivity profile of the original text, and the degree of correspondence between the two would be a measure for the quality of the translation. A set of "essential" conjuncts was extracted for English and Japanese, and a computer interface was designed to support the task of inserting the most fitting conjuncts between sentence pairs. With these in place, several sets of experiments were performed.

* Proceedings of COLING-96 (Poster Sessions, pgs. 1066-1069) 
* 4 pages, LaTeX, uses colap.sty 

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Neural semi-Markov CRF for Monolingual Word Alignment

Jun 16, 2021
Wuwei Lan, Chao Jiang, Wei Xu

Monolingual word alignment is important for studying fine-grained editing operations (i.e., deletion, addition, and substitution) in text-to-text generation tasks, such as paraphrase generation, text simplification, neutralizing biased language, etc. In this paper, we present a novel neural semi-Markov CRF alignment model, which unifies word and phrase alignments through variable-length spans. We also create a new benchmark with human annotations that cover four different text genres to evaluate monolingual word alignment models in more realistic settings. Experimental results show that our proposed model outperforms all previous approaches for monolingual word alignment as well as a competitive QA-based baseline, which was previously only applied to bilingual data. Our model demonstrates good generalizability to three out-of-domain datasets and shows great utility in two downstream applications: automatic text simplification and sentence pair classification tasks.

* Accepted to ACL 2021 

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Automatic Construction of Evaluation Suites for Natural Language Generation Datasets

Jun 16, 2021
Simon Mille, Kaustubh D. Dhole, Saad Mahamood, Laura Perez-Beltrachini, Varun Gangal, Mihir Kale, Emiel van Miltenburg, Sebastian Gehrmann

Machine learning approaches applied to NLP are often evaluated by summarizing their performance in a single number, for example accuracy. Since most test sets are constructed as an i.i.d. sample from the overall data, this approach overly simplifies the complexity of language and encourages overfitting to the head of the data distribution. As such, rare language phenomena or text about underrepresented groups are not equally included in the evaluation. To encourage more in-depth model analyses, researchers have proposed the use of multiple test sets, also called challenge sets, that assess specific capabilities of a model. In this paper, we develop a framework based on this idea which is able to generate controlled perturbations and identify subsets in text-to-scalar, text-to-text, or data-to-text settings. By applying this framework to the GEM generation benchmark, we propose an evaluation suite made of 80 challenge sets, demonstrate the kinds of analyses that it enables and shed light onto the limits of current generation models.

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WuDaoMM: A large-scale Multi-Modal Dataset for Pre-training models

Mar 30, 2022
Sha Yuan, Shuai Zhao, Jiahong Leng, Zhao Xue, Hanyu Zhao, Peiyu Liu, Zheng Gong, Wayne Xin Zhao, Junyi Li, Jie Tang

Compared with the domain-specific model, the vision-language pre-training models (VLPMs) have shown superior performance on downstream tasks with fast fine-tuning process. For example, ERNIE-ViL, Oscar and UNIMO trained VLPMs with a uniform transformers stack architecture and large amounts of image-text paired data, achieving remarkable results on downstream tasks such as image-text reference(IR and TR), vision question answering (VQA) and image captioning (IC) etc. During the training phase, VLPMs are always fed with a combination of multiple public datasets to meet the demand of large-scare training data. However, due to the unevenness of data distribution including size, task type and quality, using the mixture of multiple datasets for model training can be problematic. In this work, we introduce a large-scale multi-modal corpora named WuDaoMM, totally containing more than 650M image-text pairs. Specifically, about 600 million pairs of data are collected from multiple webpages in which image and caption present weak correlation, and the other 50 million strong-related image-text pairs are collected from some high-quality graphic websites. We also release a base version of WuDaoMM with 5 million strong-correlated image-text pairs, which is sufficient to support the common cross-modal model pre-training. Besides, we trained both an understanding and a generation vision-language (VL) model to test the dataset effectiveness. The results show that WuDaoMM can be applied as an efficient dataset for VLPMs, especially for the model in text-to-image generation task. The data is released at

* 7 pages, 2 tables, 3 figures 

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