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"Text": models, code, and papers

EdiT5: Semi-Autoregressive Text-Editing with T5 Warm-Start

May 24, 2022
Jonathan Mallinson, Jakub Adamek, Eric Malmi, Aliaksei Severyn

We present EdiT5 - a novel semi-autoregressive text-editing approach designed to combine the strengths of non-autoregressive text-editing and autoregressive decoding. EdiT5 is faster at inference times than conventional sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models, while being capable of modeling flexible input-output transformations. This is achieved by decomposing the generation process into three sub-tasks: (1) tagging to decide on the subset of input tokens to be preserved in the output, (2) re-ordering to define their order in the output text, and (3) insertion to infill the missing tokens that are not present in the input. The tagging and re-ordering steps, which are responsible for generating the largest portion of the output, are non-autoregressive, while the insertion uses an autoregressive decoder. Depending on the task, EdiT5 requires significantly fewer autoregressive steps demonstrating speedups of up to 25x when compared to classic seq2seq models. Quality-wise, EdiT5 is initialized with a pre-trained T5 checkpoint yielding comparable performance to T5 in high-resource settings and clearly outperforms it on low-resource settings when evaluated on three NLG tasks: Sentence Fusion, Grammatical Error Correction, and Decontextualization.

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Lightweight, Dynamic Graph Convolutional Networks for AMR-to-Text Generation

Oct 09, 2020
Yan Zhang, Zhijiang Guo, Zhiyang Teng, Wei Lu, Shay B. Cohen, Zuozhu Liu, Lidong Bing

AMR-to-text generation is used to transduce Abstract Meaning Representation structures (AMR) into text. A key challenge in this task is to efficiently learn effective graph representations. Previously, Graph Convolution Networks (GCNs) were used to encode input AMRs, however, vanilla GCNs are not able to capture non-local information and additionally, they follow a local (first-order) information aggregation scheme. To account for these issues, larger and deeper GCN models are required to capture more complex interactions. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic fusion mechanism, proposing Lightweight Dynamic Graph Convolutional Networks (LDGCNs) that capture richer non-local interactions by synthesizing higher order information from the input graphs. We further develop two novel parameter saving strategies based on the group graph convolutions and weight tied convolutions to reduce memory usage and model complexity. With the help of these strategies, we are able to train a model with fewer parameters while maintaining the model capacity. Experiments demonstrate that LDGCNs outperform state-of-the-art models on two benchmark datasets for AMR-to-text generation with significantly fewer parameters.

* Accepted to EMNLP 2020, long paper 

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Neural Text Classification and Stacked Heterogeneous Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in SMM4H 2021

Jun 11, 2021
Usama Yaseen, Stefan Langer

This paper presents our findings from participating in the SMM4H Shared Task 2021. We addressed Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Text Classification. To address NER we explored BiLSTM-CRF with Stacked Heterogeneous Embeddings and linguistic features. We investigated various machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Networks) to address text classification. Our proposed approaches can be generalized to different languages and we have shown its effectiveness for English and Spanish. Our text classification submissions (team:MIC-NLP) have achieved competitive performance with F1-score of $0.46$ and $0.90$ on ADE Classification (Task 1a) and Profession Classification (Task 7a) respectively. In the case of NER, our submissions scored F1-score of $0.50$ and $0.82$ on ADE Span Detection (Task 1b) and Profession Span detection (Task 7b) respectively.

* NAACL 2021 

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Declarative Question Answering over Knowledge Bases containing Natural Language Text with Answer Set Programming

May 01, 2019
Arindam Mitra, Peter Clark, Oyvind Tafjord, Chitta Baral

While in recent years machine learning (ML) based approaches have been the popular approach in developing end-to-end question answering systems, such systems often struggle when additional knowledge is needed to correctly answer the questions. Proposed alternatives involve translating the question and the natural language text to a logical representation and then use logical reasoning. However, this alternative falters when the size of the text gets bigger. To address this we propose an approach that does logical reasoning over premises written in natural language text. The proposed method uses recent features of Answer Set Programming (ASP) to call external NLP modules (which may be based on ML) which perform simple textual entailment. To test our approach we develop a corpus based on the life cycle questions and showed that Our system achieves up to $18\%$ performance gain when compared to standard MCQ solvers.

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GAP: A Graph-aware Language Model Framework for Knowledge Graph-to-Text Generation

Apr 13, 2022
Anthony Colas, Mehrdad Alvandipour, Daisy Zhe Wang

Recent improvements in KG-to-text generation are due to additional auxiliary pre-trained tasks designed to give the fine-tune task a boost in performance. These tasks require extensive computational resources while only suggesting marginal improvements. Here, we demonstrate that by fusing graph-aware elements into existing pre-trained language models, we are able to outperform state-of-the-art models and close the gap imposed by additional pre-train tasks. We do so by proposing a mask structure to capture neighborhood information and a novel type encoder that adds a bias to the graph-attention weights depending on the connection type. Experiments on two KG-to-text benchmark datasets show these models to be superior in quality while involving fewer parameters and no additional pre-trained tasks. By formulating the problem as a framework, we can interchange the various proposed components and begin interpreting KG-to-text generative models based on the topological and type information found in a graph.

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Comparing SVM and Naive Bayes classifiers for text categorization with Wikitology as knowledge enrichment

Feb 18, 2012
Sundus Hassan, Muhammad Rafi, Muhammad Shahid Shaikh

The activity of labeling of documents according to their content is known as text categorization. Many experiments have been carried out to enhance text categorization by adding background knowledge to the document using knowledge repositories like Word Net, Open Project Directory (OPD), Wikipedia and Wikitology. In our previous work, we have carried out intensive experiments by extracting knowledge from Wikitology and evaluating the experiment on Support Vector Machine with 10- fold cross-validations. The results clearly indicate Wikitology is far better than other knowledge bases. In this paper we are comparing Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Na\"ive Bayes (NB) classifiers under text enrichment through Wikitology. We validated results with 10-fold cross validation and shown that NB gives an improvement of +28.78%, on the other hand SVM gives an improvement of +6.36% when compared with baseline results. Na\"ive Bayes classifier is better choice when external enriching is used through any external knowledge base.

* Multitopic Conference (INMIC), 2011 IEEE 14th International 
* 5 pages 

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Conditional Variational Autoencoder with Adversarial Learning for End-to-End Text-to-Speech

Jun 11, 2021
Jaehyeon Kim, Jungil Kong, Juhee Son

Several recent end-to-end text-to-speech (TTS) models enabling single-stage training and parallel sampling have been proposed, but their sample quality does not match that of two-stage TTS systems. In this work, we present a parallel end-to-end TTS method that generates more natural sounding audio than current two-stage models. Our method adopts variational inference augmented with normalizing flows and an adversarial training process, which improves the expressive power of generative modeling. We also propose a stochastic duration predictor to synthesize speech with diverse rhythms from input text. With the uncertainty modeling over latent variables and the stochastic duration predictor, our method expresses the natural one-to-many relationship in which a text input can be spoken in multiple ways with different pitches and rhythms. A subjective human evaluation (mean opinion score, or MOS) on the LJ Speech, a single speaker dataset, shows that our method outperforms the best publicly available TTS systems and achieves a MOS comparable to ground truth.

* ICML 2021 

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LaTr: Layout-Aware Transformer for Scene-Text VQA

Dec 24, 2021
Ali Furkan Biten, Ron Litman, Yusheng Xie, Srikar Appalaraju, R. Manmatha

We propose a novel multimodal architecture for Scene Text Visual Question Answering (STVQA), named Layout-Aware Transformer (LaTr). The task of STVQA requires models to reason over different modalities. Thus, we first investigate the impact of each modality, and reveal the importance of the language module, especially when enriched with layout information. Accounting for this, we propose a single objective pre-training scheme that requires only text and spatial cues. We show that applying this pre-training scheme on scanned documents has certain advantages over using natural images, despite the domain gap. Scanned documents are easy to procure, text-dense and have a variety of layouts, helping the model learn various spatial cues (e.g. left-of, below etc.) by tying together language and layout information. Compared to existing approaches, our method performs vocabulary-free decoding and, as shown, generalizes well beyond the training vocabulary. We further demonstrate that LaTr improves robustness towards OCR errors, a common reason for failure cases in STVQA. In addition, by leveraging a vision transformer, we eliminate the need for an external object detector. LaTr outperforms state-of-the-art STVQA methods on multiple datasets. In particular, +7.6% on TextVQA, +10.8% on ST-VQA and +4.0% on OCR-VQA (all absolute accuracy numbers).

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Aggressive Language Detection with Joint Text Normalization via Adversarial Multi-task Learning

Sep 19, 2020
Shengqiong Wu, Hao Fei, Donghong Ji

Aggressive language detection (ALD), detecting the abusive and offensive language in texts, is one of the crucial applications in NLP community. Most existing works treat ALD as regular classification with neural models, while ignoring the inherent conflicts of social media text that they are quite unnormalized and irregular. In this work, we target improving the ALD by jointly performing text normalization (TN), via an adversarial multi-task learning framework. The private encoders for ALD and TN focus on the task-specific features retrieving, respectively, and the shared encoder learns the underlying common features over two tasks. During adversarial training, a task discriminator distinguishes the separate learning of ALD or TN. Experimental results on four ALD datasets show that our model outperforms all baselines under differing settings by large margins, demonstrating the necessity of joint learning the TN with ALD. Further analysis is conducted for a better understanding of our method.

* accepted at NLPCC2020 

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Factual Consistency Evaluation for Text Summarization via Counterfactual Estimation

Sep 08, 2021
Yuexiang Xie, Fei Sun, Yang Deng, Yaliang Li, Bolin Ding

Despite significant progress has been achieved in text summarization, factual inconsistency in generated summaries still severely limits its practical applications. Among the key factors to ensure factual consistency, a reliable automatic evaluation metric is the first and the most crucial one. However, existing metrics either neglect the intrinsic cause of the factual inconsistency or rely on auxiliary tasks, leading to an unsatisfied correlation with human judgments or increasing the inconvenience of usage in practice. In light of these challenges, we propose a novel metric to evaluate the factual consistency in text summarization via counterfactual estimation, which formulates the causal relationship among the source document, the generated summary, and the language prior. We remove the effect of language prior, which can cause factual inconsistency, from the total causal effect on the generated summary, and provides a simple yet effective way to evaluate consistency without relying on other auxiliary tasks. We conduct a series of experiments on three public abstractive text summarization datasets, and demonstrate the advantages of the proposed metric in both improving the correlation with human judgments and the convenience of usage. The source code is available at

* Accepted by EMNLP-21 

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