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"Text": models, code, and papers

Which way? Direction-Aware Attributed Graph Embedding

Jan 30, 2020
Zekarias T. Kefato, Nasrullah Sheikh, Alberto Montresor

Graph embedding algorithms are used to efficiently represent (encode) a graph in a low-dimensional continuous vector space that preserves the most important properties of the graph. One aspect that is often overlooked is whether the graph is directed or not. Most studies ignore the directionality, so as to learn high-quality representations optimized for node classification. On the other hand, studies that capture directionality are usually effective on link prediction but do not perform well on other tasks. This preliminary study presents a novel text-enriched, direction-aware algorithm called DIAGRAM , based on a carefully designed multi-objective model to learn embeddings that preserve the direction of edges, textual features and graph context of nodes. As a result, our algorithm does not have to trade one property for another and jointly learns high-quality representations for multiple network analysis tasks. We empirically show that DIAGRAM significantly outperforms six state-of-the-art baselines, both direction-aware and oblivious ones,on link prediction and network reconstruction experiments using two popular datasets. It also achieves a comparable performance on node classification experiments against these baselines using the same datasets.


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A multimodal deep learning approach for named entity recognition from social media

Jan 19, 2020
Meysam Asgari-Chenaghlu, M. Reza Feizi-Derakhshi, Leili Farzinvash, Cina Motamed

Named Entity Recognition (NER) from social media posts is a challenging task. User generated content which forms the nature of social media, is noisy and contains grammatical and linguistic errors. This noisy content makes it much harder for tasks such as named entity recognition. However some applications like automatic journalism or information retrieval from social media, require more information about entities mentioned in groups of social media posts. Conventional methods applied to structured and well typed documents provide acceptable results while compared to new user generated media, these methods are not satisfactory. One valuable piece of information about an entity is the related image to the text. Combining this multimodal data reduces ambiguity and provides wider information about the entities mentioned. In order to address this issue, we propose a novel deep learning approach utilizing multimodal deep learning. Our solution is able to provide more accurate results on named entity recognition task. Experimental results, namely the precision, recall and F1 score metrics show the superiority of our work compared to other state-of-the-art NER solutions.


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Dynamic Knowledge Graph Construction for Zero-shot Commonsense Question Answering

Nov 10, 2019
Antoine Bosselut, Yejin Choi

Understanding narratives requires dynamically reasoning about the implicit causes, effects, and states of the situations described in text, which in turn requires understanding rich background knowledge about how the social and physical world works. At the core of this challenge is how to access contextually relevant knowledge on demand and reason over it. In this paper, we present initial studies toward zero-shot commonsense QA by formulating the task as probabilistic inference over dynamically generated commonsense knowledge graphs. In contrast to previous studies for knowledge integration that rely on retrieval of existing knowledge from static knowledge graphs, our study requires commonsense knowledge integration where contextually relevant knowledge is often not present in existing knowledge bases. Therefore, we present a novel approach that generates contextually relevant knowledge on demand using generative neural commonsense knowledge models. Empirical results on the SocialIQa and StoryCommonsense datasets in a zero-shot setting demonstrate that using commonsense knowledge models to dynamically construct and reason over knowledge graphs achieves performance boosts over pre-trained language models and using knowledge models to directly evaluate answers.


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SentiLR: Linguistic Knowledge Enhanced Language Representation for Sentiment Analysis

Nov 06, 2019
Pei Ke, Haozhe Ji, Siyang Liu, Xiaoyan Zhu, Minlie Huang

Most of the existing pre-trained language representation models neglect to consider the linguistic knowledge of texts, whereas we argue that such knowledge can promote language understanding in various NLP tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel language representation model called SentiLR, which introduces word-level linguistic knowledge including part-of-speech tag and prior sentiment polarity from SentiWordNet to benefit the downstream tasks in sentiment analysis. During pre-training, we first acquire the prior sentiment polarity of each word by querying the SentiWordNet dictionary with its part-of-speech tag. Then, we devise a new pre-training task called label-aware masked language model (LA-MLM) consisting of two subtasks: 1) word knowledge recovering given the sentence-level label; 2) sentence-level label prediction with linguistic knowledge enhanced context. Experiments show that SentiLR achieves state-of-the-art performance on several sentence-level / aspect-level sentiment analysis tasks by fine-tuning, and also obtain comparative results on general language understanding tasks.

* 11 pages 

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Scalable Evaluation and Improvement of Document Set Expansion via Neural Positive-Unlabeled Learning

Oct 29, 2019
Alon Jacovi, Gang Niu, Yoav Goldberg, Masashi Sugiyama

We consider the situation in which a user has collected a small set of documents on a cohesive topic, and they want to retrieve additional documents on this topic from a large collection. Information Retrieval (IR) solutions treat the document set as a query, and look for similar documents in the collection. We propose to extend the IR approach by treating the problem as an instance of positive-unlabeled (PU) learning---i.e., learning binary classifiers from only positive and unlabeled data, where the positive data corresponds to the query documents, and the unlabeled data is the results returned by the IR engine. Utilizing PU learning for text with big neural networks is a largely unexplored field. We discuss various challenges in applying PU learning to the setting, including an unknown class prior, extremely imbalanced data and large-scale accurate evaluation of models, and we propose solutions and empirically validate them. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method using a series of experiments of retrieving PubMed abstracts adhering to fine-grained topics. We demonstrate improvements over the base IR solution and other baselines. Implementation is available at https://github.com/sayaendo/document-set-expansion-pu.


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Cross-lingual Alignment vs Joint Training: A Comparative Study and A Simple Unified Framework

Oct 13, 2019
Zirui Wang, Jiateng Xie, Ruochen Xu, Yiming Yang, Graham Neubig, Jaime Carbonell

Learning multilingual representations of text has proven a successful method for many cross-lingual transfer learning tasks. There are two main paradigms for learning such representations: (1) alignment, which maps different independently trained monolingual representations into a shared space, and (2) joint training, which directly learns unified multilingual representations using monolingual and cross-lingual objectives jointly. In this paper, we first conduct direct comparisons of representations learned using both of these methods across diverse cross-lingual tasks. Our empirical results reveal a set of pros and cons for both methods, and show that the relative performance of alignment versus joint training is task-dependent. Stemming from this analysis, we propose a simple and novel framework that combines these two previously mutually-exclusive approaches. Extensive experiments on various tasks demonstrate that our proposed framework alleviates limitations of both approaches, and outperforms existing methods on the MUSE bilingual lexicon induction (BLI) benchmark. We further show that our proposed framework can generalize to contextualized representations and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CoNLL cross-lingual NER benchmark.

* First two authors contributted equally. Source code is available at https://github.com/thespectrewithin/joint-align 

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GEAR: Graph-based Evidence Aggregating and Reasoning for Fact Verification

Jul 22, 2019
Jie Zhou, Xu Han, Cheng Yang, Zhiyuan Liu, Lifeng Wang, Changcheng Li, Maosong Sun

Fact verification (FV) is a challenging task which requires to retrieve relevant evidence from plain text and use the evidence to verify given claims. Many claims require to simultaneously integrate and reason over several pieces of evidence for verification. However, previous work employs simple models to extract information from evidence without letting evidence communicate with each other, e.g., merely concatenate the evidence for processing. Therefore, these methods are unable to grasp sufficient relational and logical information among the evidence. To alleviate this issue, we propose a graph-based evidence aggregating and reasoning (GEAR) framework which enables information to transfer on a fully-connected evidence graph and then utilizes different aggregators to collect multi-evidence information. We further employ BERT, an effective pre-trained language representation model, to improve the performance. Experimental results on a large-scale benchmark dataset FEVER have demonstrated that GEAR could leverage multi-evidence information for FV and thus achieves the promising result with a test FEVER score of 67.10%. Our code is available at https://github.com/thunlp/GEAR.

* Accepted by ACL 2019 

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News Labeling as Early as Possible: Real or Fake?

Jun 08, 2019
Maryam Ramezani, Mina Rafiei, Soroush Omranpour, Hamid R. Rabiee

Making disguise between real and fake news propagation through online social networks is an important issue in many applications. The time gap between the news release time and detection of its label is a significant step towards broadcasting the real information and avoiding the fake. Therefore, one of the challenging tasks in this area is to identify fake and real news in early stages of propagation. However, there is a trade-off between minimizing the time gap and maximizing accuracy. Despite recent efforts in detection of fake news, there has been no significant work that explicitly incorporates early detection in its model. In this paper, we focus on accurate early labeling of news, and propose a model by considering earliness both in modeling and prediction. The proposed method utilizes recurrent neural networks with a novel loss function, and a new stopping rule. Given the context of news, we first embed it with a class-specific text representation. Then, we utilize the available public profile of users, and speed of news diffusion, for early labeling of the news. Experiments on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our model both in terms of early labelling and accuracy, compared to the state of the art baseline and models.


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Semantic Drift in Multilingual Representations

May 02, 2019
Lisa Beinborn, Rochelle Choenni

Multilingual representations have mostly been evaluated based on their performance on specific tasks. In this article, we look beyond engineering goals and analyze the relations between languages in computational representations. We introduce a methodology for comparing languages based on their organization of semantic concepts. We propose to conduct an adapted version of representational similarity analysis of a selected set of concepts in computational multilingual representations. Using this analysis method, we can reconstruct a phylogenetic tree that closely resembles those assumed by linguistic experts. These results indicate that multilingual distributional representations which are only trained on monolingual text and bilingual dictionaries preserve relations between languages without the need for any etymological information. In addition, we propose a measure to identify semantic drift between language families. We perform experiments on word-based and sentence-based multilingual models and provide both quantitative results and qualitative examples. Analyses of semantic drift in multilingual representations can serve two purposes: they can indicate unwanted characteristics of the computational models and they provide a quantitative means to study linguistic phenomena across languages. The code is available at https://github.com/beinborn/SemanticDrift.


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