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Cross-modal Deep Metric Learning with Multi-task Regularization

Apr 05, 2017
Xin Huang, Yuxin Peng

DNN-based cross-modal retrieval has become a research hotspot, by which users can search results across various modalities like image and text. However, existing methods mainly focus on the pairwise correlation and reconstruction error of labeled data. They ignore the semantically similar and dissimilar constraints between different modalities, and cannot take advantage of unlabeled data. This paper proposes Cross-modal Deep Metric Learning with Multi-task Regularization (CDMLMR), which integrates quadruplet ranking loss and semi-supervised contrastive loss for modeling cross-modal semantic similarity in a unified multi-task learning architecture. The quadruplet ranking loss can model the semantically similar and dissimilar constraints to preserve cross-modal relative similarity ranking information. The semi-supervised contrastive loss is able to maximize the semantic similarity on both labeled and unlabeled data. Compared to the existing methods, CDMLMR exploits not only the similarity ranking information but also unlabeled cross-modal data, and thus boosts cross-modal retrieval accuracy.

* Revision: Added reference [7] 6 pages, 1 figure, to appear in the proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Jul 10, 2017 - Jul 14, 2017, Hong Kong, Hong Kong 

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The Benefits of Word Embeddings Features for Active Learning in Clinical Information Extraction

Nov 15, 2016
Mahnoosh Kholghi, Lance De Vine, Laurianne Sitbon, Guido Zuccon, Anthony Nguyen

This study investigates the use of unsupervised word embeddings and sequence features for sample representation in an active learning framework built to extract clinical concepts from clinical free text. The objective is to further reduce the manual annotation effort while achieving higher effectiveness compared to a set of baseline features. Unsupervised features are derived from skip-gram word embeddings and a sequence representation approach. The comparative performance of unsupervised features and baseline hand-crafted features in an active learning framework are investigated using a wide range of selection criteria including least confidence, information diversity, information density and diversity, and domain knowledge informativeness. Two clinical datasets are used for evaluation: the i2b2/VA 2010 NLP challenge and the ShARe/CLEF 2013 eHealth Evaluation Lab. Our results demonstrate significant improvements in terms of effectiveness as well as annotation effort savings across both datasets. Using unsupervised features along with baseline features for sample representation lead to further savings of up to 9% and 10% of the token and concept annotation rates, respectively.

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What to do about non-standard (or non-canonical) language in NLP

Aug 28, 2016
Barbara Plank

Real world data differs radically from the benchmark corpora we use in natural language processing (NLP). As soon as we apply our technologies to the real world, performance drops. The reason for this problem is obvious: NLP models are trained on samples from a limited set of canonical varieties that are considered standard, most prominently English newswire. However, there are many dimensions, e.g., socio-demographics, language, genre, sentence type, etc. on which texts can differ from the standard. The solution is not obvious: we cannot control for all factors, and it is not clear how to best go beyond the current practice of training on homogeneous data from a single domain and language. In this paper, I review the notion of canonicity, and how it shapes our community's approach to language. I argue for leveraging what I call fortuitous data, i.e., non-obvious data that is hitherto neglected, hidden in plain sight, or raw data that needs to be refined. If we embrace the variety of this heterogeneous data by combining it with proper algorithms, we will not only produce more robust models, but will also enable adaptive language technology capable of addressing natural language variation.

* KONVENS 2016 

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Image Restoration with Locally Selected Class-Adapted Models

Aug 02, 2016
Afonso M. Teodoro, José M. Bioucas-Dias, Mário A. T. Figueiredo

State-of-the-art algorithms for imaging inverse problems (namely deblurring and reconstruction) are typically iterative, involving a denoising operation as one of its steps. Using a state-of-the-art denoising method in this context is not trivial, and is the focus of current work. Recently, we have proposed to use a class-adapted denoiser (patch-based using Gaussian mixture models) in a so-called plug-and-play scheme, wherein a state-of-the-art denoiser is plugged into an iterative algorithm, leading to results that outperform the best general-purpose algorithms, when applied to an image of a known class (e.g. faces, text, brain MRI). In this paper, we extend that approach to handle situations where the image being processed is from one of a collection of possible classes or, more importantly, contains regions of different classes. More specifically, we propose a method to locally select one of a set of class-adapted Gaussian mixture patch priors, previously estimated from clean images of those classes. Our approach may be seen as simultaneously performing segmentation and restoration, thus contributing to bridging the gap between image restoration/reconstruction and analysis.

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Exploiting Local Structures with the Kronecker Layer in Convolutional Networks

Feb 04, 2016
Shuchang Zhou, Jia-Nan Wu, Yuxin Wu, Xinyu Zhou

In this paper, we propose and study a technique to reduce the number of parameters and computation time in convolutional neural networks. We use Kronecker product to exploit the local structures within convolution and fully-connected layers, by replacing the large weight matrices by combinations of multiple Kronecker products of smaller matrices. Just as the Kronecker product is a generalization of the outer product from vectors to matrices, our method is a generalization of the low rank approximation method for convolution neural networks. We also introduce combinations of different shapes of Kronecker product to increase modeling capacity. Experiments on SVHN, scene text recognition and ImageNet dataset demonstrate that we can achieve $3.3 \times$ speedup or $3.6 \times$ parameter reduction with less than 1\% drop in accuracy, showing the effectiveness and efficiency of our method. Moreover, the computation efficiency of Kronecker layer makes using larger feature map possible, which in turn enables us to outperform the previous state-of-the-art on both SVHN(digit recognition) and CASIA-HWDB (handwritten Chinese character recognition) datasets.

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Fine-Grained Product Class Recognition for Assisted Shopping

Oct 14, 2015
Marian George, Dejan Mircic, Gábor Sörös, Christian Floerkemeier, Friedemann Mattern

Assistive solutions for a better shopping experience can improve the quality of life of people, in particular also of visually impaired shoppers. We present a system that visually recognizes the fine-grained product classes of items on a shopping list, in shelves images taken with a smartphone in a grocery store. Our system consists of three components: (a) We automatically recognize useful text on product packaging, e.g., product name and brand, and build a mapping of words to product classes based on the large-scale GroceryProducts dataset. When the user populates the shopping list, we automatically infer the product class of each entered word. (b) We perform fine-grained product class recognition when the user is facing a shelf. We discover discriminative patches on product packaging to differentiate between visually similar product classes and to increase the robustness against continuous changes in product design. (c) We continuously improve the recognition accuracy through active learning. Our experiments show the robustness of the proposed method against cross-domain challenges, and the scalability to an increasing number of products with minimal re-training.

* Accepted at ICCV Workshop on Assistive Computer Vision and Robotics (ICCV-ACVR) 2015 

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Fast and Robust Fixed-Rank Matrix Recovery

Mar 25, 2015
German Ros, Julio Guerrero

We address the problem of efficient sparse fixed-rank (S-FR) matrix decomposition, i.e., splitting a corrupted matrix $M$ into an uncorrupted matrix $L$ of rank $r$ and a sparse matrix of outliers $S$. Fixed-rank constraints are usually imposed by the physical restrictions of the system under study. Here we propose a method to perform accurate and very efficient S-FR decomposition that is more suitable for large-scale problems than existing approaches. Our method is a grateful combination of geometrical and algebraical techniques, which avoids the bottleneck caused by the Truncated SVD (TSVD). Instead, a polar factorization is used to exploit the manifold structure of fixed-rank problems as the product of two Stiefel and an SPD manifold, leading to a better convergence and stability. Then, closed-form projectors help to speed up each iteration of the method. We introduce a novel and fast projector for the $\text{SPD}$ manifold and a proof of its validity. Further acceleration is achieved using a Nystrom scheme. Extensive experiments with synthetic and real data in the context of robust photometric stereo and spectral clustering show that our proposals outperform the state of the art.

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Polarity detection movie reviews in hindi language

Sep 13, 2014
Richa Sharma, Shweta Nigam, Rekha Jain

Nowadays peoples are actively involved in giving comments and reviews on social networking websites and other websites like shopping websites, news websites etc. large number of people everyday share their opinion on the web, results is a large number of user data is collected .users also find it trivial task to read all the reviews and then reached into the decision. It would be better if these reviews are classified into some category so that the user finds it easier to read. Opinion Mining or Sentiment Analysis is a natural language processing task that mines information from various text forms such as reviews, news, and blogs and classify them on the basis of their polarity as positive, negative or neutral. But, from the last few years, user content in Hindi language is also increasing at a rapid rate on the Web. So it is very important to perform opinion mining in Hindi language as well. In this paper a Hindi language opinion mining system is proposed. The system classifies the reviews as positive, negative and neutral for Hindi language. Negation is also handled in the proposed system. Experimental results using reviews of movies show the effectiveness of the system

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The Laplacian K-modes algorithm for clustering

Jun 16, 2014
Weiran Wang, Miguel Á. Carreira-Perpiñán

In addition to finding meaningful clusters, centroid-based clustering algorithms such as K-means or mean-shift should ideally find centroids that are valid patterns in the input space, representative of data in their cluster. This is challenging with data having a nonconvex or manifold structure, as with images or text. We introduce a new algorithm, Laplacian K-modes, which naturally combines three powerful ideas in clustering: the explicit use of assignment variables (as in K-means); the estimation of cluster centroids which are modes of each cluster's density estimate (as in mean-shift); and the regularizing effect of the graph Laplacian, which encourages similar assignments for nearby points (as in spectral clustering). The optimization algorithm alternates an assignment step, which is a convex quadratic program, and a mean-shift step, which separates for each cluster centroid. The algorithm finds meaningful density estimates for each cluster, even with challenging problems where the clusters have manifold structure, are highly nonconvex or in high dimension. It also provides centroids that are valid patterns, truly representative of their cluster (unlike K-means), and an out-of-sample mapping that predicts soft assignments for a new point.

* 14 pages, 6 figures 

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Subjectivity Classification using Machine Learning Techniques for Mining Feature-Opinion Pairs from Web Opinion Sources

Dec 25, 2013
Ahmad Kamal

Due to flourish of the Web 2.0, web opinion sources are rapidly emerging containing precious information useful for both customers and manufactures. Recently, feature based opinion mining techniques are gaining momentum in which customer reviews are processed automatically for mining product features and user opinions expressed over them. However, customer reviews may contain both opinionated and factual sentences. Distillations of factual contents improve mining performance by preventing noisy and irrelevant extraction. In this paper, combination of both supervised machine learning and rule-based approaches are proposed for mining feasible feature-opinion pairs from subjective review sentences. In the first phase of the proposed approach, a supervised machine learning technique is applied for classifying subjective and objective sentences from customer reviews. In the next phase, a rule based method is implemented which applies linguistic and semantic analysis of texts to mine feasible feature-opinion pairs from subjective sentences retained after the first phase. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is established through experimentation over customer reviews on different electronic products.

* International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), Volume 10 Issue 5, 2013, pp 191-200 
* 10 pages, 2 Color Photographs, 1 Diagram, 14 Charts, 2 Graphs, International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), Vol. 10, Issue 5, No 1, September 2013 

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