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OntoED: Low-resource Event Detection with Ontology Embedding

May 27, 2021
Shumin Deng, Ningyu Zhang, Luoqiu Li, Hui Chen, Huaixiao Tou, Mosha Chen, Fei Huang, Huajun Chen

Event Detection (ED) aims to identify event trigger words from a given text and classify it into an event type. Most of current methods to ED rely heavily on training instances, and almost ignore the correlation of event types. Hence, they tend to suffer from data scarcity and fail to handle new unseen event types. To address these problems, we formulate ED as a process of event ontology population: linking event instances to pre-defined event types in event ontology, and propose a novel ED framework entitled OntoED with ontology embedding. We enrich event ontology with linkages among event types, and further induce more event-event correlations. Based on the event ontology, OntoED can leverage and propagate correlation knowledge, particularly from data-rich to data-poor event types. Furthermore, OntoED can be applied to new unseen event types, by establishing linkages to existing ones. Experiments indicate that OntoED is more predominant and robust than previous approaches to ED, especially in data-scarce scenarios.

* Accepted to appear at the ACL 2021 main conference 

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Extending the Abstraction of Personality Types based on MBTI with Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing

May 25, 2021
Carlos Basto

A data-centric approach with Natural Language Processing (NLP) to predict personality types based on the MBTI (an introspective self-assessment questionnaire that indicates different psychological preferences about how people perceive the world and make decisions) through systematic enrichment of text representation, based on the domain of the area, under the generation of features based on three types of analysis: sentimental, grammatical and aspects. The experimentation had a robust baseline of stacked models, with premature optimization of hyperparameters through grid search, with gradual feedback, for each of the four classifiers (dichotomies) of MBTI. The results showed that attention to the data iteration loop focused on quality, explanatory power and representativeness for the abstraction of more relevant/important resources for the studied phenomenon made it possible to improve the evaluation metrics results more quickly and less costly than complex models such as the LSTM or state of the art ones as BERT, as well as the importance of these results by comparisons made from various perspectives. In addition, the study demonstrated a broad spectrum for the evolution and deepening of the task and possible approaches for a greater extension of the abstraction of personality types.

* 23 pages, 22 figures 

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Matching Visual Features to Hierarchical Semantic Topics for Image Paragraph Captioning

May 10, 2021
Dandan Guo, Ruiying Lu, Bo Chen, Zequn Zeng, Mingyuan Zhou

Observing a set of images and their corresponding paragraph-captions, a challenging task is to learn how to produce a semantically coherent paragraph to describe the visual content of an image. Inspired by recent successes in integrating semantic topics into this task, this paper develops a plug-and-play hierarchical-topic-guided image paragraph generation framework, which couples a visual extractor with a deep topic model to guide the learning of a language model. To capture the correlations between the image and text at multiple levels of abstraction and learn the semantic topics from images, we design a variational inference network to build the mapping from image features to textual captions. To guide the paragraph generation, the learned hierarchical topics and visual features are integrated into the language model, including Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Transformer, and jointly optimized. Experiments on public dataset demonstrate that the proposed models, which are competitive with many state-of-the-art approaches in terms of standard evaluation metrics, can be used to both distill interpretable multi-layer topics and generate diverse and coherent captions.

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$Q^{2}$: Evaluating Factual Consistency in Knowledge-Grounded Dialogues via Question Generation and Question Answering

Apr 16, 2021
Or Honovich, Leshem Choshen, Roee Aharoni, Ella Neeman, Idan Szpektor, Omri Abend

Neural knowledge-grounded generative models for dialogue often produce content that is factually inconsistent with the source text they rely on. As a consequence, such models are unreliable, limiting their real-world applicability. Inspired by recent work on evaluating factual consistency in abstractive summarization (Durmus et al., 2020; Wang et al., 2020), we propose an automatic evaluation metric for factual consistency in knowledge-grounded dialogue models using automatic question generation and question answering. Unlike previous works which use naive token-based comparison of answer spans, our metric makes use of co-reference resolution and natural language inference capabilities which greatly improve its performance. To foster proper evaluation, we curate a novel dataset of state-of-the-art dialogue system outputs for the Wizard-of-Wikipedia dataset (Dinan et al., 2019), which we manually annotate for factual consistency. We perform a thorough meta-evaluation of our metric against other metrics using the new dataset and two others, where it greatly outperforms the baselines.

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Fill-in-the-blank as a Challenging Video Understanding Evaluation Framework

Apr 09, 2021
Santiago Castro, Ruoyao Wang, Pingxuan Huang, Ian Stewart, Nan Liu, Jonathan Stroud, Rada Mihalcea

Work to date on language-informed video understanding has primarily addressed two tasks: (1) video question answering using multiple-choice questions, where models perform relatively well because they exploit the fact that candidate answers are readily available; and (2) video captioning, which relies on an open-ended evaluation framework that is often inaccurate because system answers may be perceived as incorrect if they differ in form from the ground truth. In this paper, we propose fill-in-the-blanks as a video understanding evaluation framework that addresses these previous evaluation drawbacks, and more closely reflects real-life settings where no multiple choices are given. The task tests a system understanding of a video by requiring the model to predict a masked noun phrase in the caption of the video, given the video and the surrounding text. We introduce a novel dataset consisting of 28,000 videos and fill-in-the-blank tests. We show that both a multimodal model and a strong language model have a large gap with human performance, thus suggesting that the task is more challenging than current video understanding benchmarks.

* 8 pages, 5 figures 

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Enhancing Scientific Papers Summarization with Citation Graph

Apr 07, 2021
Chenxin An, Ming Zhong, Yiran Chen, Danqing Wang, Xipeng Qiu, Xuanjing Huang

Previous work for text summarization in scientific domain mainly focused on the content of the input document, but seldom considering its citation network. However, scientific papers are full of uncommon domain-specific terms, making it almost impossible for the model to understand its true meaning without the help of the relevant research community. In this paper, we redefine the task of scientific papers summarization by utilizing their citation graph and propose a citation graph-based summarization model CGSum which can incorporate the information of both the source paper and its references. In addition, we construct a novel scientific papers summarization dataset Semantic Scholar Network (SSN) which contains 141K research papers in different domains and 661K citation relationships. The entire dataset constitutes a large connected citation graph. Extensive experiments show that our model can achieve competitive performance when compared with the pretrained models even with a simple architecture. The results also indicates the citation graph is crucial to better understand the content of papers and generate high-quality summaries.

* accepted by AAAI 2021 

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Learning with Smooth Hinge Losses

Mar 15, 2021
JunRu Luo, Hong Qiao, Bo Zhang

Due to the non-smoothness of the Hinge loss in SVM, it is difficult to obtain a faster convergence rate with modern optimization algorithms. In this paper, we introduce two smooth Hinge losses $\psi_G(\alpha;\sigma)$ and $\psi_M(\alpha;\sigma)$ which are infinitely differentiable and converge to the Hinge loss uniformly in $\alpha$ as $\sigma$ tends to $0$. By replacing the Hinge loss with these two smooth Hinge losses, we obtain two smooth support vector machines(SSVMs), respectively. Solving the SSVMs with the Trust Region Newton method (TRON) leads to two quadratically convergent algorithms. Experiments in text classification tasks show that the proposed SSVMs are effective in real-world applications. We also introduce a general smooth convex loss function to unify several commonly-used convex loss functions in machine learning. The general framework provides smooth approximation functions to non-smooth convex loss functions, which can be used to obtain smooth models that can be solved with faster convergent optimization algorithms.

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Metrical Tagging in the Wild: Building and Annotating Poetry Corpora with Rhythmic Features

Feb 17, 2021
Thomas Haider

A prerequisite for the computational study of literature is the availability of properly digitized texts, ideally with reliable meta-data and ground-truth annotation. Poetry corpora do exist for a number of languages, but larger collections lack consistency and are encoded in various standards, while annotated corpora are typically constrained to a particular genre and/or were designed for the analysis of certain linguistic features (like rhyme). In this work, we provide large poetry corpora for English and German, and annotate prosodic features in smaller corpora to train corpus driven neural models that enable robust large scale analysis. We show that BiLSTM-CRF models with syllable embeddings outperform a CRF baseline and different BERT-based approaches. In a multi-task setup, particular beneficial task relations illustrate the inter-dependence of poetic features. A model learns foot boundaries better when jointly predicting syllable stress, aesthetic emotions and verse measures benefit from each other, and we find that caesuras are quite dependent on syntax and also integral to shaping the overall measure of the line.

* Accepted at EACL 2021 

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