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EDUCE: Explaining model Decisions through Unsupervised Concepts Extraction

May 28, 2019
Diane Bouchacourt, Ludovic Denoyer

With the advent of deep neural networks, some research focuses towards understanding their black-box behavior. In this paper, we propose a new type of self-interpretable models, that are, architectures designed to provide explanations along with their predictions. Our method proceeds in two stages and is trained end-to-end: first, our model builds a low-dimensional binary representation of any input where each feature denotes the presence or absence of concepts. Then, it computes a prediction only based on this binary representation through a simple linear model. This allows an easy interpretation of the model's output in terms of presence of particular concepts in the input. The originality of our approach lies in the fact that concepts are automatically discovered at training time, without the need for additional supervision. Concepts correspond to a set of patterns, built on local low-level features (e.g a part of an image, a word in a sentence), easily identifiable from the other concepts. We experimentally demonstrate the relevance of our approach using classification tasks on two types of data, text and image, by showing its predictive performance and interpretability.


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XLDA: Cross-Lingual Data Augmentation for Natural Language Inference and Question Answering

May 27, 2019
Jasdeep Singh, Bryan McCann, Nitish Shirish Keskar, Caiming Xiong, Richard Socher

While natural language processing systems often focus on a single language, multilingual transfer learning has the potential to improve performance, especially for low-resource languages. We introduce XLDA, cross-lingual data augmentation, a method that replaces a segment of the input text with its translation in another language. XLDA enhances performance of all 14 tested languages of the cross-lingual natural language inference (XNLI) benchmark. With improvements of up to $4.8\%$, training with XLDA achieves state-of-the-art performance for Greek, Turkish, and Urdu. XLDA is in contrast to, and performs markedly better than, a more naive approach that aggregates examples in various languages in a way that each example is solely in one language. On the SQuAD question answering task, we see that XLDA provides a $1.0\%$ performance increase on the English evaluation set. Comprehensive experiments suggest that most languages are effective as cross-lingual augmentors, that XLDA is robust to a wide range of translation quality, and that XLDA is even more effective for randomly initialized models than for pretrained models.


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ERNIE: Enhanced Language Representation with Informative Entities

May 26, 2019
Zhengyan Zhang, Xu Han, Zhiyuan Liu, Xin Jiang, Maosong Sun, Qun Liu

Neural language representation models such as BERT pre-trained on large-scale corpora can well capture rich semantic patterns from plain text, and be fine-tuned to consistently improve the performance of various NLP tasks. However, the existing pre-trained language models rarely consider incorporating knowledge graphs (KGs), which can provide rich structured knowledge facts for better language understanding. We argue that informative entities in KGs can enhance language representation with external knowledge. In this paper, we utilize both large-scale textual corpora and KGs to train an enhanced language representation model (ERNIE), which can take full advantage of lexical, syntactic, and knowledge information simultaneously. The experimental results have demonstrated that ERNIE achieves significant improvements on various knowledge-driven tasks, and meanwhile is comparable with the state-of-the-art model BERT on other common NLP tasks. The source code of this paper can be obtained from https://github.com/thunlp/ERNIE.

* Accepted by ACL 2019 

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Adaptive Composition GAN towards Realistic Image Synthesis

May 14, 2019
Fangneng Zhan, Jiaxing Huang, Shijian Lu

Despite the rapid progress of generative adversarial networks (GANs) in image synthesis in recent years, current approaches work in either geometry domain or appearance domain which tend to introduce various synthesis artifacts. This paper presents an innovative Adaptive Composition GAN (AC-GAN) that incorporates image synthesis in geometry and appearance domains into an end-to-end trainable network and achieves synthesis realism in both domains simultaneously. An innovative hierarchical synthesis mechanism is designed which is capable of generating realistic geometry and composition when multiple foreground objects with or without occlusions are involved in synthesis. In addition, a novel attention mask is introduced to guide the appearance adaptation to the embedded foreground objects which helps preserve image details and resolution and also provide better reference for synthesis in geometry domain. Extensive experiments on scene text image synthesis, automated portrait editing and indoor rendering tasks show that the proposed AC-GAN achieves superior synthesis performance qualitatively and quantitatively.

* 12 pages, 8 figures 

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SuperTML: Two-Dimensional Word Embedding and Transfer Learning Using ImageNet Pretrained CNN Models for the Classifications on Tabular Data

Mar 22, 2019
Baohua Sun, Lin Yang, Wenhan Zhang, Michael Lin, Patrick Dong, Charles Young, Jason Dong

Tabular data is the most commonly used form of data in industry. Gradient Boosting Trees, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, and Logistic Regression are typically used for classification tasks on tabular data. DNN models using categorical embeddings are also applied in this task, but all attempts thus far have used one-dimensional embeddings. The recent work of Super Characters method using two-dimensional word embeddings achieved the state of art result in text classification tasks, showcasing the promise of this new approach. In this paper, we propose the SuperTML method, which borrows the idea of Super Characters method and two-dimensional embeddings to address the problem of classification on tabular data. For each input of tabular data, the features are first projected into two-dimensional embeddings like an image, and then this image is fed into fine-tuned two-dimensional CNN models for classification. Experimental results have shown that the proposed SuperTML method had achieved state-of-the-art results on both large and small datasets.

* 7 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables. Corrected typos 

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Let's Transfer Transformations of Shared Semantic Representations

Mar 02, 2019
Nam Vo, Lu Jiang, James Hays

With a good image understanding capability, can we manipulate the images high level semantic representation? Such transformation operation can be used to generate or retrieve similar images but with a desired modification (for example changing beach background to street background); similar ability has been demonstrated in zero shot learning, attribute composition and attribute manipulation image search. In this work we show how one can learn transformations with no training examples by learning them on another domain and then transfer to the target domain. This is feasible if: first, transformation training data is more accessible in the other domain and second, both domains share similar semantics such that one can learn transformations in a shared embedding space. We demonstrate this on an image retrieval task where search query is an image, plus an additional transformation specification (for example: search for images similar to this one but background is a street instead of a beach). In one experiment, we transfer transformation from synthesized 2D blobs image to 3D rendered image, and in the other, we transfer from text domain to natural image domain.


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Helping each Other: A Framework for Customer-to-Customer Suggestion Mining using a Semi-supervised Deep Neural Network

Nov 01, 2018
Hitesh Golchha, Deepak Gupta, Asif Ekbal, Pushpak Bhattacharyya

Suggestion mining is increasingly becoming an important task along with sentiment analysis. In today's cyberspace world, people not only express their sentiments and dispositions towards some entities or services, but they also spend considerable time sharing their experiences and advice to fellow customers and the product/service providers with two-fold agenda: helping fellow customers who are likely to share a similar experience, and motivating the producer to bring specific changes in their offerings which would be more appreciated by the customers. In our current work, we propose a hybrid deep learning model to identify whether a review text contains any suggestion. The model employs semi-supervised learning to leverage the useful information from the large amount of unlabeled data. We evaluate the performance of our proposed model on a benchmark customer review dataset, comprising of the reviews of Hotel and Electronics domains. Our proposed approach shows the F-scores of 65.6% and 65.5% for the Hotel and Electronics review datasets, respectively. These performances are significantly better compared to the existing state-of-the-art system.

* To be appear in the proceedings of ICON 2018 

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LAMVI-2: A Visual Tool for Comparing and Tuning Word Embedding Models

Oct 22, 2018
Xin Rong, Joshua Luckson, Eytan Adar

Tuning machine learning models, particularly deep learning architectures, is a complex process. Automated hyperparameter tuning algorithms often depend on specific optimization metrics. However, in many situations, a developer trades one metric against another: accuracy versus overfitting, precision versus recall, smaller models and accuracy, etc. With deep learning, not only are the model's representations opaque, the model's behavior when parameters "knobs" are changed may also be unpredictable. Thus, picking the "best" model often requires time-consuming model comparison. In this work, we introduce LAMVI-2, a visual analytics system to support a developer in comparing hyperparameter settings and outcomes. By focusing on word-embedding models ("deep learning for text") we integrate views to compare both high-level statistics as well as internal model behaviors (e.g., comparing word 'distances'). We demonstrate how developers can work with LAMVI-2 to more quickly and accurately narrow down an appropriate and effective application-specific model.


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Adversarial TableQA: Attention Supervision for Question Answering on Tables

Oct 19, 2018
Minseok Cho, Reinald Kim Amplayo, Seung-won Hwang, Jonghyuck Park

The task of answering a question given a text passage has shown great developments on model performance thanks to community efforts in building useful datasets. Recently, there have been doubts whether such rapid progress has been based on truly understanding language. The same question has not been asked in the table question answering (TableQA) task, where we are tasked to answer a query given a table. We show that existing efforts, of using "answers" for both evaluation and supervision for TableQA, show deteriorating performances in adversarial settings of perturbations that do not affect the answer. This insight naturally motivates to develop new models that understand question and table more precisely. For this goal, we propose Neural Operator (NeOp), a multi-layer sequential network with attention supervision to answer the query given a table. NeOp uses multiple Selective Recurrent Units (SelRUs) to further help the interpretability of the answers of the model. Experiments show that the use of operand information to train the model significantly improves the performance and interpretability of TableQA models. NeOp outperforms all the previous models by a big margin.

* ACML 2018 

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