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End-to-end Phoneme Sequence Recognition using Convolutional Neural Networks

Dec 07, 2013
Dimitri Palaz, Ronan Collobert, Mathew Magimai. -Doss

Most phoneme recognition state-of-the-art systems rely on a classical neural network classifiers, fed with highly tuned features, such as MFCC or PLP features. Recent advances in ``deep learning'' approaches questioned such systems, but while some attempts were made with simpler features such as spectrograms, state-of-the-art systems still rely on MFCCs. This might be viewed as a kind of failure from deep learning approaches, which are often claimed to have the ability to train with raw signals, alleviating the need of hand-crafted features. In this paper, we investigate a convolutional neural network approach for raw speech signals. While convolutional architectures got tremendous success in computer vision or text processing, they seem to have been let down in the past recent years in the speech processing field. We show that it is possible to learn an end-to-end phoneme sequence classifier system directly from raw signal, with similar performance on the TIMIT and WSJ datasets than existing systems based on MFCC, questioning the need of complex hand-crafted features on large datasets.

* NIPS Deep Learning Workshop, 2013 

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Optimal Weighting of Multi-View Data with Low Dimensional Hidden States

Sep 26, 2012
Yichao Lu, Dean P. Foster

In Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, data often has the following two properties: First, data can be chopped into multi-views which has been successfully used for dimension reduction purposes. For example, in topic classification, every paper can be chopped into the title, the main text and the references. However, it is common that some of the views are less noisier than other views for supervised learning problems. Second, unlabeled data are easy to obtain while labeled data are relatively rare. For example, articles occurred on New York Times in recent 10 years are easy to grab but having them classified as 'Politics', 'Finance' or 'Sports' need human labor. Hence less noisy features are preferred before running supervised learning methods. In this paper we propose an unsupervised algorithm which optimally weights features from different views when these views are generated from a low dimensional hidden state, which occurs in widely used models like Mixture Gaussian Model, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA).

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Pearl: A Probabilistic Chart Parser

May 03, 1994
David M. Magerman, Mitchell P. Marcus

This paper describes a natural language parsing algorithm for unrestricted text which uses a probability-based scoring function to select the "best" parse of a sentence. The parser, Pearl, is a time-asynchronous bottom-up chart parser with Earley-type top-down prediction which pursues the highest-scoring theory in the chart, where the score of a theory represents the extent to which the context of the sentence predicts that interpretation. This parser differs from previous attempts at stochastic parsers in that it uses a richer form of conditional probabilities based on context to predict likelihood. Pearl also provides a framework for incorporating the results of previous work in part-of-speech assignment, unknown word models, and other probabilistic models of linguistic features into one parsing tool, interleaving these techniques instead of using the traditional pipeline architecture. In preliminary tests, Pearl has been successful at resolving part-of-speech and word (in speech processing) ambiguity, determining categories for unknown words, and selecting correct parses first using a very loosely fitting covering grammar.

* Proceedings, 2nd International Workshop for Parsing Technologies 
* 7 pages 

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Zero-shot Cross-lingual Transfer of Prompt-based Tuning with a Unified Multilingual Prompt

Feb 23, 2022
Lianzhe Huang, Shuming Ma, Dongdong Zhang, Furu Wei, Houfeng Wang

Prompt-based tuning has been proven effective for pretrained language models (PLMs). While most of the existing work focuses on the monolingual prompts, we study the multilingual prompts for multilingual PLMs, especially in the zero-shot cross-lingual setting. To alleviate the effort of designing different prompts for multiple languages, we propose a novel model that uses a unified prompt for all languages, called UniPrompt. Different from the discrete prompts and soft prompts, the unified prompt is model-based and language-agnostic. Specifically, the unified prompt is initialized by a multilingual PLM to produce language-independent representation, after which is fused with the text input. During inference, the prompts can be pre-computed so that no extra computation cost is needed. To collocate with the unified prompt, we propose a new initialization method for the target label word to further improve the model's transferability across languages. Extensive experiments show that our proposed methods can significantly outperform the strong baselines across different languages. We will release data and code to facilitate future research.

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Unsupervised word-level prosody tagging for controllable speech synthesis

Feb 16, 2022
Yiwei Guo, Chenpeng Du, Kai Yu

Although word-level prosody modeling in neural text-to-speech (TTS) has been investigated in recent research for diverse speech synthesis, it is still challenging to control speech synthesis manually without a specific reference. This is largely due to lack of word-level prosody tags. In this work, we propose a novel approach for unsupervised word-level prosody tagging with two stages, where we first group the words into different types with a decision tree according to their phonetic content and then cluster the prosodies using GMM within each type of words separately. This design is based on the assumption that the prosodies of different type of words, such as long or short words, should be tagged with different label sets. Furthermore, a TTS system with the derived word-level prosody tags is trained for controllable speech synthesis. Experiments on LJSpeech show that the TTS model trained with word-level prosody tags not only achieves better naturalness than a typical FastSpeech2 model, but also gains the ability to manipulate word-level prosody.

* 5 pages, 6 figures, accepted to ICASSP2022 

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NÜWA-LIP: Language Guided Image Inpainting with Defect-free VQGAN

Feb 10, 2022
Minheng Ni, Chenfei Wu, Haoyang Huang, Daxin Jiang, Wangmeng Zuo, Nan Duan

Language guided image inpainting aims to fill in the defective regions of an image under the guidance of text while keeping non-defective regions unchanged. However, the encoding process of existing models suffers from either receptive spreading of defective regions or information loss of non-defective regions, giving rise to visually unappealing inpainting results. To address the above issues, this paper proposes N\"UWA-LIP by incorporating defect-free VQGAN (DF-VQGAN) with multi-perspective sequence to sequence (MP-S2S). In particular, DF-VQGAN introduces relative estimation to control receptive spreading and adopts symmetrical connections to protect information. MP-S2S further enhances visual information from complementary perspectives, including both low-level pixels and high-level tokens. Experiments show that DF-VQGAN performs more robustness than VQGAN. To evaluate the inpainting performance of our model, we built up 3 open-domain benchmarks, where N\"UWA-LIP is also superior to recent strong baselines.

* 10 pages, 6 figures 

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Speech Emotion Recognition using Self-Supervised Features

Feb 07, 2022
Edmilson Morais, Ron Hoory, Weizhong Zhu, Itai Gat, Matheus Damasceno, Hagai Aronowitz

Self-supervised pre-trained features have consistently delivered state-of-art results in the field of natural language processing (NLP); however, their merits in the field of speech emotion recognition (SER) still need further investigation. In this paper we introduce a modular End-to- End (E2E) SER system based on an Upstream + Downstream architecture paradigm, which allows easy use/integration of a large variety of self-supervised features. Several SER experiments for predicting categorical emotion classes from the IEMOCAP dataset are performed. These experiments investigate interactions among fine-tuning of self-supervised feature models, aggregation of frame-level features into utterance-level features and back-end classification networks. The proposed monomodal speechonly based system not only achieves SOTA results, but also brings light to the possibility of powerful and well finetuned self-supervised acoustic features that reach results similar to the results achieved by SOTA multimodal systems using both Speech and Text modalities.

* 5 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, ICASSP 2022 

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Towards Coherent and Consistent Use of Entities in Narrative Generation

Feb 03, 2022
Pinelopi Papalampidi, Kris Cao, Tomas Kocisky

Large pre-trained language models (LMs) have demonstrated impressive capabilities in generating long, fluent text; however, there is little to no analysis on their ability to maintain entity coherence and consistency. In this work, we focus on the end task of narrative generation and systematically analyse the long-range entity coherence and consistency in generated stories. First, we propose a set of automatic metrics for measuring model performance in terms of entity usage. Given these metrics, we quantify the limitations of current LMs. Next, we propose augmenting a pre-trained LM with a dynamic entity memory in an end-to-end manner by using an auxiliary entity-related loss for guiding the reads and writes to the memory. We demonstrate that the dynamic entity memory increases entity coherence according to both automatic and human judgment and helps preserving entity-related information especially in settings with a limited context window. Finally, we also validate that our automatic metrics are correlated with human ratings and serve as a good indicator of the quality of generated stories.

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RuMedBench: A Russian Medical Language Understanding Benchmark

Jan 17, 2022
Pavel Blinov, Arina Reshetnikova, Aleksandr Nesterov, Galina Zubkova, Vladimir Kokh

The paper describes the open Russian medical language understanding benchmark covering several task types (classification, question answering, natural language inference, named entity recognition) on a number of novel text sets. Given the sensitive nature of the data in healthcare, such a benchmark partially closes the problem of Russian medical dataset absence. We prepare the unified format labeling, data split, and evaluation metrics for new tasks. The remaining tasks are from existing datasets with a few modifications. A single-number metric expresses a model's ability to cope with the benchmark. Moreover, we implement several baseline models, from simple ones to neural networks with transformer architecture, and release the code. Expectedly, the more advanced models yield better performance, but even a simple model is enough for a decent result in some tasks. Furthermore, for all tasks, we provide a human evaluation. Interestingly the models outperform humans in the large-scale classification tasks. However, the advantage of natural intelligence remains in the tasks requiring more knowledge and reasoning.

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MAGMA -- Multimodal Augmentation of Generative Models through Adapter-based Finetuning

Dec 09, 2021
Constantin Eichenberg, Sidney Black, Samuel Weinbach, Letitia Parcalabescu, Anette Frank

Large-scale pretraining is fast becoming the norm in Vision-Language (VL) modeling. However, prevailing VL approaches are limited by the requirement for labeled data and the use of complex multi-step pretraining objectives. We present MAGMA - a simple method for augmenting generative language models with additional modalities using adapter-based finetuning. Building on Frozen, we train a series of VL models that autoregressively generate text from arbitrary combinations of visual and textual input. The pretraining is entirely end-to-end using a single language modeling objective, simplifying optimization compared to previous approaches. Importantly, the language model weights remain unchanged during training, allowing for transfer of encyclopedic knowledge and in-context learning abilities from language pretraining. MAGMA outperforms Frozen on open-ended generative tasks, achieving state of the art results on the OKVQA benchmark and competitive results on a range of other popular VL benchmarks, while pretraining on 0.2% of the number of samples used to train SimVLM.

* 11 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables 

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