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PIRC Net : Using Proposal Indexing, Relationships and Context for Phrase Grounding

Dec 07, 2018
Rama Kovvuri, Ram Nevatia

Phrase Grounding aims to detect and localize objects in images that are referred to and are queried by natural language phrases. Phrase grounding finds applications in tasks such as Visual Dialog, Visual Search and Image-text co-reference resolution. In this paper, we present a framework that leverages information such as phrase category, relationships among neighboring phrases in a sentence and context to improve the performance of phrase grounding systems. We propose three modules: Proposal Indexing Network(PIN); Inter-phrase Regression Network(IRN) and Proposal Ranking Network(PRN) each of which analyze the region proposals of an image at increasing levels of detail by incorporating the above information. Also, in the absence of ground-truth spatial locations of the phrases(weakly-supervised), we propose knowledge transfer mechanisms that leverages the framework of PIN module. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on the Flickr 30k Entities and ReferItGame datasets, for which we achieve improvements over state-of-the-art approaches in both supervised and weakly-supervised variants.

* Accepted in ACCV 2018 

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Low-Complexity Data-Parallel Earth Mover's Distance Approximations

Dec 05, 2018
Kubilay Atasu, Thomas Mittelholzer

The Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) is a state-of-the art metric for comparing probability distributions. The high distinguishability offered by the EMD comes at a high cost in computational complexity. Therefore, linear-complexity approximation algorithms have been proposed to improve its scalability. However, these algorithms are either limited to vector spaces with only a few dimensions or require the probability distributions to populate the vector space sparsely. We propose novel approximation algorithms that overcome both of these limitations, yet still achieve linear time complexity. All our algorithms are data parallel, and therefore, we can take advantage of massively parallel computing engines, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The experiments on MNIST images show that the new algorithms can perform a billion distance computations in less than a minute using a single GPU. On the popular text-based 20 Newsgroups dataset, the new algorithms are four orders of magnitude faster than the state-of-the-art FastEMD library and match its search accuracy.

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Connecting the Dots Between MLE and RL for Sequence Generation

Nov 24, 2018
Bowen Tan, Zhiting Hu, Zichao Yang, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Eric Xing

Sequence generation models such as recurrent networks can be trained with a diverse set of learning algorithms. For example, maximum likelihood learning is simple and efficient, yet suffers from the exposure bias problem. Reinforcement learning like policy gradient addresses the problem but can have prohibitively poor exploration efficiency. A variety of other algorithms such as RAML, SPG, and data noising, have also been developed from different perspectives. This paper establishes a formal connection between these algorithms. We present a generalized entropy regularized policy optimization formulation, and show that the apparently divergent algorithms can all be reformulated as special instances of the framework, with the only difference being the configurations of reward function and a couple of hyperparameters. The unified interpretation offers a systematic view of the varying properties of exploration and learning efficiency. Besides, based on the framework, we present a new algorithm that dynamically interpolates among the existing algorithms for improved learning. Experiments on machine translation and text summarization demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

* The first two authors contributed equally. Code available at: 

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Inductive Representation Learning on Large Graphs

Sep 10, 2018
William L. Hamilton, Rex Ying, Jure Leskovec

Low-dimensional embeddings of nodes in large graphs have proved extremely useful in a variety of prediction tasks, from content recommendation to identifying protein functions. However, most existing approaches require that all nodes in the graph are present during training of the embeddings; these previous approaches are inherently transductive and do not naturally generalize to unseen nodes. Here we present GraphSAGE, a general, inductive framework that leverages node feature information (e.g., text attributes) to efficiently generate node embeddings for previously unseen data. Instead of training individual embeddings for each node, we learn a function that generates embeddings by sampling and aggregating features from a node's local neighborhood. Our algorithm outperforms strong baselines on three inductive node-classification benchmarks: we classify the category of unseen nodes in evolving information graphs based on citation and Reddit post data, and we show that our algorithm generalizes to completely unseen graphs using a multi-graph dataset of protein-protein interactions.

* Published in NIPS 2017; version with full appendix and minor corrections 

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Deep Encoder-Decoder Models for Unsupervised Learning of Controllable Speech Synthesis

Sep 09, 2018
Gustav Eje Henter, Jaime Lorenzo-Trueba, Xin Wang, Junichi Yamagishi

Generating versatile and appropriate synthetic speech requires control over the output expression separate from the spoken text. Important non-textual speech variation is seldom annotated, in which case output control must be learned in an unsupervised fashion. In this paper, we perform an in-depth study of methods for unsupervised learning of control in statistical speech synthesis. For example, we show that popular unsupervised training heuristics can be interpreted as variational inference in certain autoencoder models. We additionally connect these models to VQ-VAEs, another, recently-proposed class of deep variational autoencoders, which we show can be derived from a very similar mathematical argument. The implications of these new probabilistic interpretations are discussed. We illustrate the utility of the various approaches with an application to acoustic modelling for emotional speech synthesis, where the unsupervised methods for learning expression control (without access to emotional labels) are found to give results that in many aspects match or surpass the previous best supervised approach.

* 17 pages, 4 figures 

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Dynamic Compositionality in Recursive Neural Networks with Structure-aware Tag Representations

Sep 07, 2018
Taeuk Kim, Jihun Choi, Daniel Edmiston, Sanghwan Bae, Sang-goo Lee

Most existing recursive neural network (RvNN) architectures utilize only the structure of parse trees, ignoring syntactic tags which are provided as by-products of parsing. We present a novel RvNN architecture that can provide dynamic compositionality by considering comprehensive syntactic information derived from both the structure and linguistic tags. Specifically, we introduce a structure-aware tag representation constructed by a separate tag-level tree-LSTM. With this, we can control the composition function of the existing word-level tree-LSTM by augmenting the representation as a supplementary input to the gate functions of the tree-LSTM. We show that models built upon the proposed architecture obtain superior performance on several sentence-level tasks such as sentiment analysis and natural language inference when compared against previous tree-structured models and other sophisticated neural models. In particular, our models achieve new state-of-the-art results on Stanford Sentiment Treebank, Movie Review, and Text Retrieval Conference datasets.

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CAIL2018: A Large-Scale Legal Dataset for Judgment Prediction

Jul 04, 2018
Chaojun Xiao, Haoxi Zhong, Zhipeng Guo, Cunchao Tu, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun, Yansong Feng, Xianpei Han, Zhen Hu, Heng Wang, Jianfeng Xu

In this paper, we introduce the \textbf{C}hinese \textbf{AI} and \textbf{L}aw challenge dataset (CAIL2018), the first large-scale Chinese legal dataset for judgment prediction. \dataset contains more than $2.6$ million criminal cases published by the Supreme People's Court of China, which are several times larger than other datasets in existing works on judgment prediction. Moreover, the annotations of judgment results are more detailed and rich. It consists of applicable law articles, charges, and prison terms, which are expected to be inferred according to the fact descriptions of cases. For comparison, we implement several conventional text classification baselines for judgment prediction and experimental results show that it is still a challenge for current models to predict the judgment results of legal cases, especially on prison terms. To help the researchers make improvements on legal judgment prediction, both \dataset and baselines will be released after the CAIL competition\footnote{}.

* 4 pages, 2 tables 

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Character-based Neural Networks for Sentence Pair Modeling

May 21, 2018
Wuwei Lan, Wei Xu

Sentence pair modeling is critical for many NLP tasks, such as paraphrase identification, semantic textual similarity, and natural language inference. Most state-of-the-art neural models for these tasks rely on pretrained word embedding and compose sentence-level semantics in varied ways; however, few works have attempted to verify whether we really need pretrained embeddings in these tasks. In this paper, we study how effective subword-level (character and character n-gram) representations are in sentence pair modeling. Though it is well-known that subword models are effective in tasks with single sentence input, including language modeling and machine translation, they have not been systematically studied in sentence pair modeling tasks where the semantic and string similarities between texts matter. Our experiments show that subword models without any pretrained word embedding can achieve new state-of-the-art results on two social media datasets and competitive results on news data for paraphrase identification.

* 7 pages; Accepted in NAACL 2018 

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Eigendecompositions of Transfer Operators in Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces

May 16, 2018
Stefan Klus, Ingmar Schuster, Krikamol Muandet

Transfer operators such as the Perron--Frobenius or Koopman operator play an important role in the global analysis of complex dynamical systems. The eigenfunctions of these operators can be used to detect metastable sets, to project the dynamics onto the dominant slow processes, or to separate superimposed signals. We extend transfer operator theory to reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and show that these operators are related to Hilbert space representations of conditional distributions, known as conditional mean embeddings in the machine learning community. Moreover, numerical methods to compute empirical estimates of these embeddings are akin to data-driven methods for the approximation of transfer operators such as extended dynamic mode decomposition and its variants. One main benefit of the presented kernel-based approaches is that these methods can be applied to any domain where a similarity measure given by a kernel is available. We illustrate the results with the aid of guiding examples and highlight potential applications in molecular dynamics as well as video and text data analysis.

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Automated Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions in the Biomedical Literature Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Biomedical Word Embeddings

Apr 24, 2018
Diego Saldana Miranda

Monitoring the biomedical literature for cases of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) is a critically important and time consuming task in pharmacovigilance. The development of computer assisted approaches to aid this process in different forms has been the subject of many recent works. One particular area that has shown promise is the use of Deep Neural Networks, in particular, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), for the detection of ADR relevant sentences. Using token-level convolutions and general purpose word embeddings, this architecture has shown good performance relative to more traditional models as well as Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) models. In this work, we evaluate and compare two different CNN architectures using the ADE corpus. In addition, we show that by de-duplicating the ADR relevant sentences, we can greatly reduce overoptimism in the classification results. Finally, we evaluate the use of word embeddings specifically developed for biomedical text and show that they lead to a better performance in this task.

* Accepted as conference paper at SwissText 2018 

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