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Composition and decomposition of GANs

Jan 23, 2019
Yeu-Chern Harn, Zhenghao Chen, Vladimir Jojic

In this work, we propose a composition/decomposition framework for adversarially training generative models on composed data - data where each sample can be thought of as being constructed from a fixed number of components. In our framework, samples are generated by sampling components from component generators and feeding these components to a composition function which combines them into a "composed sample". This compositional training approach improves the modularity, extensibility and interpretability of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) - providing a principled way to incrementally construct complex models out of simpler component models, and allowing for explicit "division of responsibility" between these components. Using this framework, we define a family of learning tasks and evaluate their feasibility on two datasets in two different data modalities (image and text). Lastly, we derive sufficient conditions such that these compositional generative models are identifiable. Our work provides a principled approach to building on pre-trained generative models or for exploiting the compositional nature of data distributions to train extensible and interpretable models.

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ATM:Adversarial-neural Topic Model

Nov 01, 2018
Rui Wang, Deyu Zhou, Yulan He

Topic models are widely used for thematic structure discovery in text. But traditional topic models often require dedicated inference procedures for specific tasks at hand. Also, they are not designed to generate word-level semantic representations. To address these limitations, we propose a topic modeling approach based on Generative Adversarial Nets (GANs), called Adversarial-neural Topic Model (ATM). The proposed ATM models topics with Dirichlet prior and employs a generator network to capture the semantic patterns among latent topics. Meanwhile, the generator could also produce word-level semantic representations. To illustrate the feasibility of porting ATM to tasks other than topic modeling, we apply ATM for open domain event extraction. Our experimental results on the two public corpora show that ATM generates more coherence topics, outperforming a number of competitive baselines. Moreover, ATM is able to extract meaningful events from news articles.

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Hierarchical Generative Modeling for Controllable Speech Synthesis

Oct 16, 2018
Wei-Ning Hsu, Yu Zhang, Ron J. Weiss, Heiga Zen, Yonghui Wu, Yuxuan Wang, Yuan Cao, Ye Jia, Zhifeng Chen, Jonathan Shen, Patrick Nguyen, Ruoming Pang

This paper proposes a neural end-to-end text-to-speech (TTS) model which can control latent attributes in the generated speech that are rarely annotated in the training data, such as speaking style, accent, background noise, and recording conditions. The model is formulated as a conditional generative model with two levels of hierarchical latent variables. The first level is a categorical variable, which represents attribute groups (e.g. clean/noisy) and provides interpretability. The second level, conditioned on the first, is a multivariate Gaussian variable, which characterizes specific attribute configurations (e.g. noise level, speaking rate) and enables disentangled fine-grained control over these attributes. This amounts to using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the latent distribution. Extensive evaluation demonstrates its ability to control the aforementioned attributes. In particular, it is capable of consistently synthesizing high-quality clean speech regardless of the quality of the training data for the target speaker.

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Mixture of Expert/Imitator Networks: Scalable Semi-supervised Learning Framework

Oct 13, 2018
Shun Kiyono, Jun Suzuki, Kentaro Inui

The current success of deep neural networks (DNNs) in an increasingly broad range of tasks for the artificial intelligence strongly depends on the quality and quantity of labeled training data. In general, the scarcity of labeled data, which is often observed in many natural language processing tasks, is one of the most important issues to be addressed. Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is a promising approach to overcome this issue by incorporating a large amount of unlabeled data. In this paper, we propose a novel scalable method of SSL for text classification tasks. The unique property of our method, Mixture of Expert/Imitator Networks, is that imitator networks learn to "imitate" the estimated label distribution of the expert network over the unlabeled data, which potentially contributes as a set of features for the classification. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method consistently improves the performance of several types of baseline DNNs. We also demonstrate that our method has the more data, better performance property with promising scalability to the unlabeled data.

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Sentence Entailment in Compositional Distributional Semantics

Oct 09, 2018
Esma Balkir, Dimitri Kartsaklis, Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh

Distributional semantic models provide vector representations for words by gathering co-occurrence frequencies from corpora of text. Compositional distributional models extend these from words to phrases and sentences. In categorical compositional distributional semantics, phrase and sentence representations are functions of their grammatical structure and representations of the words therein. In this setting, grammatical structures are formalised by morphisms of a compact closed category and meanings of words are formalised by objects of the same category. These can be instantiated in the form of vectors or density matrices. This paper concerns the applications of this model to phrase and sentence level entailment. We argue that entropy-based distances of vectors and density matrices provide a good candidate to measure word-level entailment, show the advantage of density matrices over vectors for word level entailments, and prove that these distances extend compositionally from words to phrases and sentences. We exemplify our theoretical constructions on real data and a toy entailment dataset and provide preliminary experimental evidence.

* Ann Math Artif Intell (2018) 82: 189. 
* 8 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables, short version presented in the International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Mathematics (ISAIM), 2016 

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Can everyday AI be ethical. Fairness of Machine Learning Algorithms

Oct 03, 2018
Philippe Besse, Celine Castets-Renard, Aurelien Garivier, Jean-Michel Loubes

Combining big data and machine learning algorithms, the power of automatic decision tools induces as much hope as fear. Many recently enacted European legislation (GDPR) and French laws attempt to regulate the use of these tools. Leaving aside the well-identified problems of data confidentiality and impediments to competition, we focus on the risks of discrimination, the problems of transparency and the quality of algorithmic decisions. The detailed perspective of the legal texts, faced with the complexity and opacity of the learning algorithms, reveals the need for important technological disruptions for the detection or reduction of the discrimination risk, and for addressing the right to obtain an explanation of the auto- matic decision. Since trust of the developers and above all of the users (citizens, litigants, customers) is essential, algorithms exploiting personal data must be deployed in a strict ethical framework. In conclusion, to answer this need, we list some ways of controls to be developed: institutional control, ethical charter, external audit attached to the issue of a label.

* in French. L'IA du quotidien peut-elle \^etre \'ethique. Loyaut\'e des Algorithmes d'apprentissage automatique 

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Bench-Marking Information Extraction in Semi-Structured Historical Handwritten Records

Jul 17, 2018
Animesh Prasad, Hervé Déjean, Jean-Luc Meunier, Max Weidemann, Johannes Michael, Gundram Leifert

In this report, we present our findings from benchmarking experiments for information extraction on historical handwritten marriage records Esposalles from IEHHR - ICDAR 2017 robust reading competition. The information extraction is modeled as semantic labeling of the sequence across 2 set of labels. This can be achieved by sequentially or jointly applying handwritten text recognition (HTR) and named entity recognition (NER). We deploy a pipeline approach where first we use state-of-the-art HTR and use its output as input for NER. We show that given low resource setup and simple structure of the records, high performance of HTR ensures overall high performance. We explore the various configurations of conditional random fields and neural networks to benchmark NER on given certain noisy input. The best model on 10-fold cross-validation as well as blind test data uses n-gram features with bidirectional long short-term memory.

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A Systematic Classification of Knowledge, Reasoning, and Context within the ARC Dataset

Jun 01, 2018
Michael Boratko, Harshit Padigela, Divyendra Mikkilineni, Pritish Yuvraj, Rajarshi Das, Andrew McCallum, Maria Chang, Achille Fokoue-Nkoutche, Pavan Kapanipathi, Nicholas Mattei, Ryan Musa, Kartik Talamadupula, Michael Witbrock

The recent work of Clark et al. introduces the AI2 Reasoning Challenge (ARC) and the associated ARC dataset that partitions open domain, complex science questions into an Easy Set and a Challenge Set. That paper includes an analysis of 100 questions with respect to the types of knowledge and reasoning required to answer them; however, it does not include clear definitions of these types, nor does it offer information about the quality of the labels. We propose a comprehensive set of definitions of knowledge and reasoning types necessary for answering the questions in the ARC dataset. Using ten annotators and a sophisticated annotation interface, we analyze the distribution of labels across the Challenge Set and statistics related to them. Additionally, we demonstrate that although naive information retrieval methods return sentences that are irrelevant to answering the query, sufficient supporting text is often present in the (ARC) corpus. Evaluating with human-selected relevant sentences improves the performance of a neural machine comprehension model by 42 points.

* Presented at the Machine Reading for Question Answering (MRQA 2018) Workshop at the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2018). 11 pages, 5 tables, 4 figures 

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Semi-supervised Embedding in Attributed Networks with Outliers

Apr 26, 2018
Jiongqian Liang, Peter Jacobs, Jiankai Sun, Srinivasan Parthasarathy

In this paper, we propose a novel framework, called Semi-supervised Embedding in Attributed Networks with Outliers (SEANO), to learn a low-dimensional vector representation that systematically captures the topological proximity, attribute affinity and label similarity of vertices in a partially labeled attributed network (PLAN). Our method is designed to work in both transductive and inductive settings while explicitly alleviating noise effects from outliers. Experimental results on various datasets drawn from the web, text and image domains demonstrate the advantages of SEANO over state-of-the-art methods in semi-supervised classification under transductive as well as inductive settings. We also show that a subset of parameters in SEANO is interpretable as outlier score and can significantly outperform baseline methods when applied for detecting network outliers. Finally, we present the use of SEANO in a challenging real-world setting -- flood mapping of satellite images and show that it is able to outperform modern remote sensing algorithms for this task.

* in Proceedings of SIAM International Conference on Data Mining (SDM'18) 

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Learning Topics using Semantic Locality

Apr 11, 2018
Ziyi Zhao, Krittaphat Pugdeethosapol, Sheng Lin, Zhe Li, Caiwen Ding, Yanzhi Wang, Qinru Qiu

The topic modeling discovers the latent topic probability of the given text documents. To generate the more meaningful topic that better represents the given document, we proposed a new feature extraction technique which can be used in the data preprocessing stage. The method consists of three steps. First, it generates the word/word-pair from every single document. Second, it applies a two-way TF-IDF algorithm to word/word-pair for semantic filtering. Third, it uses the K-means algorithm to merge the word pairs that have the similar semantic meaning. Experiments are carried out on the Open Movie Database (OMDb), Reuters Dataset and 20NewsGroup Dataset. The mean Average Precision score is used as the evaluation metric. Comparing our results with other state-of-the-art topic models, such as Latent Dirichlet allocation and traditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines. Our proposed data preprocessing can improve the generated topic accuracy by up to 12.99\%.

* International Conference of Pattern Recognition (ICPR) in 2018 

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