We propose MoNoise: a normalization model focused on generalizability and efficiency, it aims at being easily reusable and adaptable. Normalization is the task of translating texts from a non- canonical domain to a more canonical domain, in our case: from social media data to standard language. Our proposed model is based on a modular candidate generation in which each module is responsible for a different type of normalization action. The most important generation modules are a spelling correction system and a word embeddings module. Depending on the definition of the normalization task, a static lookup list can be crucial for performance. We train a random forest classifier to rank the candidates, which generalizes well to all different types of normaliza- tion actions. Most features for the ranking originate from the generation modules; besides these features, N-gram features prove to be an important source of information. We show that MoNoise beats the state-of-the-art on different normalization benchmarks for English and Dutch, which all define the task of normalization slightly different.
Distantly supervised relation extraction has been widely used to find novel relational facts from plain text. To predict the relation between a pair of two target entities, existing methods solely rely on those direct sentences containing both entities. In fact, there are also many sentences containing only one of the target entities, which provide rich and useful information for relation extraction. To address this issue, we build inference chains between two target entities via intermediate entities, and propose a path-based neural relation extraction model to encode the relational semantics from both direct sentences and inference chains. Experimental results on real-world datasets show that, our model can make full use of those sentences containing only one target entity, and achieves significant and consistent improvements on relation extraction as compared with baselines. The source code of this paper can be obtained from https: //github.com/thunlp/PathNRE.
We present a feature vector formation technique for documents - Sparse Composite Document Vector (SCDV) - which overcomes several shortcomings of the current distributional paragraph vector representations that are widely used for text representation. In SCDV, word embedding's are clustered to capture multiple semantic contexts in which words occur. They are then chained together to form document topic-vectors that can express complex, multi-topic documents. Through extensive experiments on multi-class and multi-label classification tasks, we outperform the previous state-of-the-art method, NTSG (Liu et al., 2015a). We also show that SCDV embedding's perform well on heterogeneous tasks like Topic Coherence, context-sensitive Learning and Information Retrieval. Moreover, we achieve significant reduction in training and prediction times compared to other representation methods. SCDV achieves best of both worlds - better performance with lower time and space complexity.
Internship assignment is a complicated process for universities since it is necessary to take into account a multiplicity of variables to establish a compromise between companies' requirements and student competencies acquired during the university training. These variables build up a complex relations map that requires the formulation of an exhaustive and rigorous conceptual scheme. In this research a domain ontological model is presented as support to the student's decision making for opportunities of University studies level of the University Lumiere Lyon 2 (ULL) education system. The ontology is designed and created using methodological approach offering the possibility of improving the progressive creation, capture and knowledge articulation. In this paper, we draw a balance taking the demands of the companies across the capabilities of the students. This will be done through the establishment of an ontological model of an educational learners' profile and the internship postings which are written in a free text and using uncontrolled vocabulary. Furthermore, we outline the process of semantic matching which improves the quality of query results.
A large amount of information exists in reviews written by users. This source of information has been ignored by most of the current recommender systems while it can potentially alleviate the sparsity problem and improve the quality of recommendations. In this paper, we present a deep model to learn item properties and user behaviors jointly from review text. The proposed model, named Deep Cooperative Neural Networks (DeepCoNN), consists of two parallel neural networks coupled in the last layers. One of the networks focuses on learning user behaviors exploiting reviews written by the user, and the other one learns item properties from the reviews written for the item. A shared layer is introduced on the top to couple these two networks together. The shared layer enables latent factors learned for users and items to interact with each other in a manner similar to factorization machine techniques. Experimental results demonstrate that DeepCoNN significantly outperforms all baseline recommender systems on a variety of datasets.
Directly reading documents and being able to answer questions from them is an unsolved challenge. To avoid its inherent difficulty, question answering (QA) has been directed towards using Knowledge Bases (KBs) instead, which has proven effective. Unfortunately KBs often suffer from being too restrictive, as the schema cannot support certain types of answers, and too sparse, e.g. Wikipedia contains much more information than Freebase. In this work we introduce a new method, Key-Value Memory Networks, that makes reading documents more viable by utilizing different encodings in the addressing and output stages of the memory read operation. To compare using KBs, information extraction or Wikipedia documents directly in a single framework we construct an analysis tool, WikiMovies, a QA dataset that contains raw text alongside a preprocessed KB, in the domain of movies. Our method reduces the gap between all three settings. It also achieves state-of-the-art results on the existing WikiQA benchmark.
This study proposes an approach to segment human object from a depth image based on histogram of depth values. The region of interest is first extracted based on a predefined threshold for histogram regions. A region growing process is then employed to separate multiple human bodies with the same depth interval. Our contribution is the identification of an adaptive growth threshold based on the detected histogram region. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an application in driver distraction detection was introduced. After successfully extracting the driver's position inside the car, we came up with a simple solution to track the driver motion. With the analysis of the difference between initial and current frame, a change of cluster position or depth value in the interested region, which cross the preset threshold, is considered as a distracted activity. The experiment results demonstrated the success of the algorithm in detecting typical distracted driving activities such as using phone for calling or texting, adjusting internal devices and drinking in real time.
In order to create effective storytelling agents three fundamental questions must be answered: first, is a physically embodied agent preferable to a virtual agent or a voice-only narration? Second, does a human voice have an advantage over a synthesised voice? Third, how should the emotional trajectory of the different characters in a story be related to a storyteller's facial expressions during storytelling time, and how does this correlate with the apparent emotions on the faces of the listeners? The results of two specially designed studies indicate that the physically embodied robot produces more attention to the listener as compared to a virtual embodiment, that a human voice is preferable over the current state of the art of text-to-speech, and that there is a complex yet interesting relation between the emotion lines of the story, the facial expressions of the narrating agent, and the emotions of the listener, and that the empathising of the listener is evident through its facial expressions. This work constitutes an important step towards emotional storytelling robots that can observe their listeners and adapt their style in order to maximise their effectiveness.
Inferring implicit discourse relations in natural language text is the most difficult subtask in discourse parsing. Surface features achieve good performance, but they are not readily applicable to other languages without semantic lexicons. Previous neural models require parses, surface features, or a small label set to work well. Here, we propose neural network models that are based on feedforward and long-short term memory architecture without any surface features. To our surprise, our best configured feedforward architecture outperforms LSTM-based model in most cases despite thorough tuning. Under various fine-grained label sets and a cross-linguistic setting, our feedforward models perform consistently better or at least just as well as systems that require hand-crafted surface features. Our models present the first neural Chinese discourse parser in the style of Chinese Discourse Treebank, showing that our results hold cross-linguistically.
Structured information resulting from temporal information processing is crucial for a variety of natural language processing tasks, for instance to generate timeline summarization of events from news documents, or to answer temporal/causal-related questions about some events. In this thesis we present a framework for an integrated temporal and causal relation extraction system. We first develop a robust extraction component for each type of relations, i.e. temporal order and causality. We then combine the two extraction components into an integrated relation extraction system, CATENA---CAusal and Temporal relation Extraction from NAtural language texts---, by utilizing the presumption about event precedence in causality, that causing events must happened BEFORE resulting events. Several resources and techniques to improve our relation extraction systems are also discussed, including word embeddings and training data expansion. Finally, we report our adaptation efforts of temporal information processing for languages other than English, namely Italian and Indonesian.