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"Text": models, code, and papers

HETFORMER: Heterogeneous Transformer with Sparse Attention for Long-Text Extractive Summarization

Oct 19, 2021
Ye Liu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Yao Wan, Congying Xia, Lifang He, Philip S. Yu

To capture the semantic graph structure from raw text, most existing summarization approaches are built on GNNs with a pre-trained model. However, these methods suffer from cumbersome procedures and inefficient computations for long-text documents. To mitigate these issues, this paper proposes HETFORMER, a Transformer-based pre-trained model with multi-granularity sparse attentions for long-text extractive summarization. Specifically, we model different types of semantic nodes in raw text as a potential heterogeneous graph and directly learn heterogeneous relationships (edges) among nodes by Transformer. Extensive experiments on both single- and multi-document summarization tasks show that HETFORMER achieves state-of-the-art performance in Rouge F1 while using less memory and fewer parameters.

* EMNLP 2021 (short paper) 

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Multilingual Text Classification for Dravidian Languages

Dec 03, 2021
Xiaotian Lin, Nankai Lin, Kanoksak Wattanachote, Shengyi Jiang, Lianxi Wang

As the fourth largest language family in the world, the Dravidian languages have become a research hotspot in natural language processing (NLP). Although the Dravidian languages contain a large number of languages, there are relatively few public available resources. Besides, text classification task, as a basic task of natural language processing, how to combine it to multiple languages in the Dravidian languages, is still a major difficulty in Dravidian Natural Language Processing. Hence, to address these problems, we proposed a multilingual text classification framework for the Dravidian languages. On the one hand, the framework used the LaBSE pre-trained model as the base model. Aiming at the problem of text information bias in multi-task learning, we propose to use the MLM strategy to select language-specific words, and used adversarial training to perturb them. On the other hand, in view of the problem that the model cannot well recognize and utilize the correlation among languages, we further proposed a language-specific representation module to enrich semantic information for the model. The experimental results demonstrated that the framework we proposed has a significant performance in multilingual text classification tasks with each strategy achieving certain improvements.

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Encode, Tag, Realize: High-Precision Text Editing

Sep 03, 2019
Eric Malmi, Sebastian Krause, Sascha Rothe, Daniil Mirylenka, Aliaksei Severyn

We propose LaserTagger - a sequence tagging approach that casts text generation as a text editing task. Target texts are reconstructed from the inputs using three main edit operations: keeping a token, deleting it, and adding a phrase before the token. To predict the edit operations, we propose a novel model, which combines a BERT encoder with an autoregressive Transformer decoder. This approach is evaluated on English text on four tasks: sentence fusion, sentence splitting, abstractive summarization, and grammar correction. LaserTagger achieves new state-of-the-art results on three of these tasks, performs comparably to a set of strong seq2seq baselines with a large number of training examples, and outperforms them when the number of examples is limited. Furthermore, we show that at inference time tagging can be more than two orders of magnitude faster than comparable seq2seq models, making it more attractive for running in a live environment.

* EMNLP 2019 

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On the Vocabulary of Grammar-Based Codes and the Logical Consistency of Texts

Feb 07, 2011
Łukasz Dębowski

The article presents a new interpretation for Zipf-Mandelbrot's law in natural language which rests on two areas of information theory. Firstly, we construct a new class of grammar-based codes and, secondly, we investigate properties of strongly nonergodic stationary processes. The motivation for the joint discussion is to prove a proposition with a simple informal statement: If a text of length $n$ describes $n^\beta$ independent facts in a repetitive way then the text contains at least $n^\beta/\log n$ different words, under suitable conditions on $n$. In the formal statement, two modeling postulates are adopted. Firstly, the words are understood as nonterminal symbols of the shortest grammar-based encoding of the text. Secondly, the text is assumed to be emitted by a finite-energy strongly nonergodic source whereas the facts are binary IID variables predictable in a shift-invariant way.

* 24 pages, no figures 

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Bankruptcy prediction using disclosure text features

Jan 03, 2021
Sridhar Ravula

A public firm's bankruptcy prediction is an important financial research problem because of the security price downside risks. Traditional methods rely on accounting metrics that suffer from shortcomings like window dressing and retrospective focus. While disclosure text-based metrics overcome some of these issues, current methods excessively focus on disclosure tone and sentiment. There is a requirement to relate meaningful signals in the disclosure text to financial outcomes and quantify the disclosure text data. This work proposes a new distress dictionary based on the sentences used by managers in explaining financial status. It demonstrates the significant differences in linguistic features between bankrupt and non-bankrupt firms. Further, using a large sample of 500 bankrupt firms, it builds predictive models and compares the performance against two dictionaries used in financial text analysis. This research shows that the proposed stress dictionary captures unique information from disclosures and the predictive models based on its features have the highest accuracy.

* 36 pages, 14 figures 

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A Systematic Survey of Text Worlds as Embodied Natural Language Environments

Jul 08, 2021
Peter A Jansen

Text Worlds are virtual environments for embodied agents that, unlike 2D or 3D environments, are rendered exclusively using textual descriptions. These environments offer an alternative to higher-fidelity 3D environments due to their low barrier to entry, providing the ability to study semantics, compositional inference, and other high-level tasks with rich high-level action spaces while controlling for perceptual input. This systematic survey outlines recent developments in tooling, environments, and agent modeling for Text Worlds, while examining recent trends in knowledge graphs, common sense reasoning, transfer learning of Text World performance to higher-fidelity environments, as well as near-term development targets that, once achieved, make Text Worlds an attractive general research paradigm for natural language processing.

* 18 pages 

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Improving Variational Autoencoder for Text Modelling with Timestep-Wise Regularisation

Nov 03, 2020
Ruizhe Li, Xiao Li, Guanyi Chen, Chenghua Lin

The Variational Autoencoder (VAE) is a popular and powerful model applied to text modelling to generate diverse sentences. However, an issue known as posterior collapse (or KL loss vanishing) happens when the VAE is used in text modelling, where the approximate posterior collapses to the prior, and the model will totally ignore the latent variables and be degraded to a plain language model during text generation. Such an issue is particularly prevalent when RNN-based VAE models are employed for text modelling. In this paper, we propose a simple, generic architecture called Timestep-Wise Regularisation VAE (TWR-VAE), which can effectively avoid posterior collapse and can be applied to any RNN-based VAE models. The effectiveness and versatility of our model are demonstrated in different tasks, including language modelling and dialogue response generation.

* Accepted by COLING 2020, final camera ready version 

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Can the Transformer Be Used as a Drop-in Replacement for RNNs in Text-Generating GANs?

Aug 26, 2021
Kevin Blin, Andrei Kucharavy

In this paper we address the problem of fine-tuned text generation with a limited computational budget. For that, we use a well-performing text generative adversarial network (GAN) architecture - Diversity-Promoting GAN (DPGAN), and attempted a drop-in replacement of the LSTM layer with a self-attention-based Transformer layer in order to leverage their efficiency. The resulting Self-Attention DPGAN (SADPGAN) was evaluated for performance, quality and diversity of generated text and stability. Computational experiments suggested that a transformer architecture is unable to drop-in replace the LSTM layer, under-performing during the pre-training phase and undergoing a complete mode collapse during the GAN tuning phase. Our results suggest that the transformer architecture need to be adapted before it can be used as a replacement for RNNs in text-generating GANs.

* accepted to RANLP 2021 

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Show, Attend and Read: A Simple and Strong Baseline for Irregular Text Recognition

Nov 02, 2018
Hui Li, Peng Wang, Chunhua Shen, Guyu Zhang

Recognizing irregular text in natural scene images is challenging due to the large variance in text appearance, such as curvature, orientation and distortion. Most existing approaches rely heavily on sophisticated model designs and/or extra fine-grained annotations, which, to some extent, increase the difficulty in algorithm implementation and data collection. In this work, we propose an easy-to-implement strong baseline for irregular scene text recognition, using off-the-shelf neural network components and only word-level annotations. It is composed of a $31$-layer ResNet, an LSTM-based encoder-decoder framework and a 2-dimensional attention module. Despite its simplicity, the proposed method is robust and achieves state-of-the-art performance on both regular and irregular scene text recognition benchmarks. The code will be released.

* Accepted to Proc. AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence 2019 

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