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Building an ASR Error Robust Spoken Virtual Patient System in a Highly Class-Imbalanced Scenario Without Speech Data

Apr 11, 2022
Vishal Sunder, Prashant Serai, Eric Fosler-Lussier

A Virtual Patient (VP) is a powerful tool for training medical students to take patient histories, where responding to a diverse set of spoken questions is essential to simulate natural conversations with a student. The performance of such a Spoken Language Understanding system (SLU) can be adversely affected by both the presence of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) errors in the test data and a high degree of class imbalance in the SLU training data. While these two issues have been addressed separately in prior work, we develop a novel two-step training methodology that tackles both these issues effectively in a single dialog agent. As it is difficult to collect spoken data from users without a functioning SLU system, our method does not rely on spoken data for training, rather we use an ASR error predictor to "speechify" the text data. Our method shows significant improvements over strong baselines on the VP intent classification task at various word error rate settings.

* 5 pages, 3 figures 

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Equitable Ability Estimation in Neurodivergent Student Populations with Zero-Inflated Learner Models

Mar 18, 2022
Niall Twomey, Sarah McMullan, Anat Elhalal, Rafael Poyiadzi, Luis Vaquero

At present, the educational data mining community lacks many tools needed for ensuring equitable ability estimation for Neurodivergent (ND) learners. On one hand, most learner models are susceptible to under-estimating ND ability since confounding contexts cannot be held accountable (e.g. consider dyslexia and text-heavy assessments), and on the other, few (if any) existing datasets are suited for appraising model and data bias in ND contexts. In this paper we attempt to model the relationships between context (delivery and response types) and performance of ND students with zero-inflated learner models. This approach facilitates simulation of several expected ND behavioural traits, provides equitable ability estimates across all student groups from generated datasets, increases interpretability confidence, and can double the number of learning opportunities for ND students in some cases. Our approach consistently out-performs baselines in our experiments and can also be applied to many other learner modelling frameworks

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Pair-Level Supervised Contrastive Learning for Natural Language Inference

Jan 26, 2022
Shu'ang Li, Xuming Hu, Li Lin, Lijie Wen

Natural language inference (NLI) is an increasingly important task for natural language understanding, which requires one to infer the relationship between the sentence pair (premise and hypothesis). Many recent works have used contrastive learning by incorporating the relationship of the sentence pair from NLI datasets to learn sentence representation. However, these methods only focus on comparisons with sentence-level representations. In this paper, we propose a Pair-level Supervised Contrastive Learning approach (PairSCL). We adopt a cross attention module to learn the joint representations of the sentence pairs. A contrastive learning objective is designed to distinguish the varied classes of sentence pairs by pulling those in one class together and pushing apart the pairs in other classes. We evaluate PairSCL on two public datasets of NLI where the accuracy of PairSCL outperforms other methods by 2.1% on average. Furthermore, our method outperforms the previous state-of-the-art method on seven transfer tasks of text classification.

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How do lexical semantics affect translation? An empirical study

Dec 31, 2021
Vivek Subramanian, Dhanasekar Sundararaman

Neural machine translation (NMT) systems aim to map text from one language into another. While there are a wide variety of applications of NMT, one of the most important is translation of natural language. A distinguishing factor of natural language is that words are typically ordered according to the rules of the grammar of a given language. Although many advances have been made in developing NMT systems for translating natural language, little research has been done on understanding how the word ordering of and lexical similarity between the source and target language affect translation performance. Here, we investigate these relationships on a variety of low-resource language pairs from the OpenSubtitles2016 database, where the source language is English, and find that the more similar the target language is to English, the greater the translation performance. In addition, we study the impact of providing NMT models with part of speech of words (POS) in the English sequence and find that, for Transformer-based models, the more dissimilar the target language is from English, the greater the benefit provided by POS.

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A General Language Assistant as a Laboratory for Alignment

Dec 09, 2021
Amanda Askell, Yuntao Bai, Anna Chen, Dawn Drain, Deep Ganguli, Tom Henighan, Andy Jones, Nicholas Joseph, Ben Mann, Nova DasSarma, Nelson Elhage, Zac Hatfield-Dodds, Danny Hernandez, Jackson Kernion, Kamal Ndousse, Catherine Olsson, Dario Amodei, Tom Brown, Jack Clark, Sam McCandlish, Chris Olah, Jared Kaplan

Given the broad capabilities of large language models, it should be possible to work towards a general-purpose, text-based assistant that is aligned with human values, meaning that it is helpful, honest, and harmless. As an initial foray in this direction we study simple baseline techniques and evaluations, such as prompting. We find that the benefits from modest interventions increase with model size, generalize to a variety of alignment evaluations, and do not compromise the performance of large models. Next we investigate scaling trends for several training objectives relevant to alignment, comparing imitation learning, binary discrimination, and ranked preference modeling. We find that ranked preference modeling performs much better than imitation learning, and often scales more favorably with model size. In contrast, binary discrimination typically performs and scales very similarly to imitation learning. Finally we study a `preference model pre-training' stage of training, with the goal of improving sample efficiency when finetuning on human preferences.

* 26+19 pages; v2 typos fixed, refs added, figure scale / colors fixed; v3 correct very non-standard TruthfulQA formatting and metric, alignment implications slightly improved 

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CG-NeRF: Conditional Generative Neural Radiance Fields

Dec 07, 2021
Kyungmin Jo, Gyumin Shim, Sanghun Jung, Soyoung Yang, Jaegul Choo

While recent NeRF-based generative models achieve the generation of diverse 3D-aware images, these approaches have limitations when generating images that contain user-specified characteristics. In this paper, we propose a novel model, referred to as the conditional generative neural radiance fields (CG-NeRF), which can generate multi-view images reflecting extra input conditions such as images or texts. While preserving the common characteristics of a given input condition, the proposed model generates diverse images in fine detail. We propose: 1) a novel unified architecture which disentangles the shape and appearance from a condition given in various forms and 2) the pose-consistent diversity loss for generating multimodal outputs while maintaining consistency of the view. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains consistent image quality on various condition types and achieves superior fidelity and diversity compared to existing NeRF-based generative models.

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Positivity Validation Detection and Explainability via Zero Fraction Multi-Hypothesis Testing and Asymmetrically Pruned Decision Trees

Nov 07, 2021
Guy Wolf, Gil Shabat, Hanan Shteingart

Positivity is one of the three conditions for causal inference from observational data. The standard way to validate positivity is to analyze the distribution of propensity. However, to democratize the ability to do causal inference by non-experts, it is required to design an algorithm to (i) test positivity and (ii) explain where in the covariate space positivity is lacking. The latter could be used to either suggest the limitation of further causal analysis and/or encourage experimentation where positivity is violated. The contribution of this paper is first present the problem of automatic positivity analysis and secondly to propose an algorithm based on a two steps process. The first step, models the propensity condition on the covariates and then analyze the latter distribution using multiple hypothesis testing to create positivity violation labels. The second step uses asymmetrically pruned decision trees for explainability. The latter is further converted into readable text a non-expert can understand. We demonstrate our method on a proprietary data-set of a large software enterprise.

* Talk accepted to Causal Data Science Meeting, 2021 

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Systematic Inequalities in Language Technology Performance across the World's Languages

Oct 13, 2021
Damián Blasi, Antonios Anastasopoulos, Graham Neubig

Natural language processing (NLP) systems have become a central technology in communication, education, medicine, artificial intelligence, and many other domains of research and development. While the performance of NLP methods has grown enormously over the last decade, this progress has been restricted to a minuscule subset of the world's 6,500 languages. We introduce a framework for estimating the global utility of language technologies as revealed in a comprehensive snapshot of recent publications in NLP. Our analyses involve the field at large, but also more in-depth studies on both user-facing technologies (machine translation, language understanding, question answering, text-to-speech synthesis) as well as more linguistic NLP tasks (dependency parsing, morphological inflection). In the process, we (1) quantify disparities in the current state of NLP research, (2) explore some of its associated societal and academic factors, and (3) produce tailored recommendations for evidence-based policy making aimed at promoting more global and equitable language technologies.

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