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Biclustering Algorithms Based on Metaheuristics: A Review

Mar 30, 2022
Adan Jose-Garcia, Julie Jacques, Vincent Sobanski, Clarisse Dhaenens

Biclustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique that simultaneously clusters rows and columns in a data matrix. Biclustering has emerged as an important approach and plays an essential role in various applications such as bioinformatics, text mining, and pattern recognition. However, finding significant biclusters is an NP-hard problem that can be formulated as an optimization problem. Therefore, different metaheuristics have been applied to biclustering problems because of their exploratory capability of solving complex optimization problems in reasonable computation time. Although various surveys on biclustering have been proposed, there is a lack of a comprehensive survey on the biclustering problem using metaheuristics. This chapter will present a survey of metaheuristics approaches to address the biclustering problem. The review focuses on the underlying optimization methods and their main search components: representation, objective function, and variation operators. A specific discussion on single versus multi-objective approaches is presented. Finally, some emerging research directions are presented.

* 32 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables, chapter book 

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Improving Event Representation via Simultaneous Weakly Supervised Contrastive Learning and Clustering

Mar 15, 2022
Jun Gao, Wei Wang, Changlong Yu, Huan Zhao, Wilfred Ng, Ruifeng Xu

Representations of events described in text are important for various tasks. In this work, we present SWCC: a Simultaneous Weakly supervised Contrastive learning and Clustering framework for event representation learning. SWCC learns event representations by making better use of co-occurrence information of events. Specifically, we introduce a weakly supervised contrastive learning method that allows us to consider multiple positives and multiple negatives, and a prototype-based clustering method that avoids semantically related events being pulled apart. For model training, SWCC learns representations by simultaneously performing weakly supervised contrastive learning and prototype-based clustering. Experimental results show that SWCC outperforms other baselines on Hard Similarity and Transitive Sentence Similarity tasks. In addition, a thorough analysis of the prototype-based clustering method demonstrates that the learned prototype vectors are able to implicitly capture various relations between events.

* ACL 2022 

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Diversifying Content Generation for Commonsense Reasoning with Mixture of Knowledge Graph Experts

Mar 14, 2022
Wenhao Yu, Chenguang Zhu, Lianhui Qin, Zhihan Zhang, Tong Zhao, Meng Jiang

Generative commonsense reasoning (GCR) in natural language is to reason about the commonsense while generating coherent text. Recent years have seen a surge of interest in improving the generation quality of commonsense reasoning tasks. Nevertheless, these approaches have seldom investigated diversity in the GCR tasks, which aims to generate alternative explanations for a real-world situation or predict all possible outcomes. Diversifying GCR is challenging as it expects to generate multiple outputs that are not only semantically different but also grounded in commonsense knowledge. In this paper, we propose MoKGE, a novel method that diversifies the generative reasoning by a mixture of expert (MoE) strategy on commonsense knowledge graphs (KG). A set of knowledge experts seek diverse reasoning on KG to encourage various generation outputs. Empirical experiments demonstrated that MoKGE can significantly improve the diversity while achieving on par performance on accuracy on two GCR benchmarks, based on both automatic and human evaluations.

* ACL 2022 (Findings); Code is at 

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Rethinking the Role of Demonstrations: What Makes In-Context Learning Work?

Feb 25, 2022
Sewon Min, Xinxi Lyu, Ari Holtzman, Mikel Artetxe, Mike Lewis, Hannaneh Hajishirzi, Luke Zettlemoyer

Large language models (LMs) are able to in-context learn -- perform a new task via inference alone by conditioning on a few input-label pairs (demonstrations) and making predictions for new inputs. However, there has been little understanding of how the model learns and which aspects of the demonstrations contribute to end task performance. In this paper, we show that ground truth demonstrations are in fact not required -- randomly replacing labels in the demonstrations barely hurts performance, consistently over 12 different models including GPT-3. Instead, we find that other aspects of the demonstrations are the key drivers of end task performance, including the fact that they provide a few examples of (1) the label space, (2) the distribution of the input text, and (3) the overall format of the sequence. Together, our analysis provides a new way of understanding how and why in-context learning works, while opening up new questions about how much can be learned from large language models through inference alone.

* 14 pages; 11 figures; Code available at 

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Improving Cross-lingual Speech Synthesis with Triplet Training Scheme

Feb 22, 2022
Jianhao Ye, Hongbin Zhou, Zhiba Su, Wendi He, Kaimeng Ren, Lin Li, Heng Lu

Recent advances in cross-lingual text-to-speech (TTS) made it possible to synthesize speech in a language foreign to a monolingual speaker. However, there is still a large gap between the pronunciation of generated cross-lingual speech and that of native speakers in terms of naturalness and intelligibility. In this paper, a triplet training scheme is proposed to enhance the cross-lingual pronunciation by allowing previously unseen content and speaker combinations to be seen during training. Proposed method introduces an extra fine-tune stage with triplet loss during training, which efficiently draws the pronunciation of the synthesized foreign speech closer to those from the native anchor speaker, while preserving the non-native speaker's timbre. Experiments are conducted based on a state-of-the-art baseline cross-lingual TTS system and its enhanced variants. All the objective and subjective evaluations show the proposed method brings significant improvement in both intelligibility and naturalness of the synthesized cross-lingual speech.

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Private Adaptive Optimization with Side Information

Feb 12, 2022
Tian Li, Manzil Zaheer, Sashank J. Reddi, Virginia Smith

Adaptive optimization methods have become the default solvers for many machine learning tasks. Unfortunately, the benefits of adaptivity may degrade when training with differential privacy, as the noise added to ensure privacy reduces the effectiveness of the adaptive preconditioner. To this end, we propose AdaDPS, a general framework that uses non-sensitive side information to precondition the gradients, allowing the effective use of adaptive methods in private settings. We formally show AdaDPS reduces the amount of noise needed to achieve similar privacy guarantees, thereby improving optimization performance. Empirically, we leverage simple and readily available side information to explore the performance of AdaDPS in practice, comparing to strong baselines in both centralized and federated settings. Our results show that AdaDPS improves accuracy by 7.7% (absolute) on average -- yielding state-of-the-art privacy-utility trade-offs on large-scale text and image benchmarks.

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Does BERT look at sentiment lexicon?

Nov 19, 2021
Elena Razova, Sergey Vychegzhanin, Evgeny Kotelnikov

The main approaches to sentiment analysis are rule-based methods and ma-chine learning, in particular, deep neural network models with the Trans-former architecture, including BERT. The performance of neural network models in the tasks of sentiment analysis is superior to the performance of rule-based methods. The reasons for this situation remain unclear due to the poor interpretability of deep neural network models. One of the main keys to understanding the fundamental differences between the two approaches is the analysis of how sentiment lexicon is taken into account in neural network models. To this end, we study the attention weights matrices of the Russian-language RuBERT model. We fine-tune RuBERT on sentiment text corpora and compare the distributions of attention weights for sentiment and neutral lexicons. It turns out that, on average, 3/4 of the heads of various model var-iants statistically pay more attention to the sentiment lexicon compared to the neutral one.

* 14 pages, 3 tables, 3 figures. Accepted to AIST-2021 conference 

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Wav2CLIP: Learning Robust Audio Representations From CLIP

Oct 21, 2021
Ho-Hsiang Wu, Prem Seetharaman, Kundan Kumar, Juan Pablo Bello

We propose Wav2CLIP, a robust audio representation learning method by distilling from Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP). We systematically evaluate Wav2CLIP on a variety of audio tasks including classification, retrieval, and generation, and show that Wav2CLIP can outperform several publicly available pre-trained audio representation algorithms. Wav2CLIP projects audio into a shared embedding space with images and text, which enables multimodal applications such as zero-shot classification, and cross-modal retrieval. Furthermore, Wav2CLIP needs just ~10% of the data to achieve competitive performance on downstream tasks compared with fully supervised models, and is more efficient to pre-train than competing methods as it does not require learning a visual model in concert with an auditory model. Finally, we demonstrate image generation from Wav2CLIP as qualitative assessment of the shared embedding space. Our code and model weights are open sourced and made available for further applications.

* Submitted to ICASSP 2022 

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A non-hierarchical attention network with modality dropout for textual response generation in multimodal dialogue systems

Oct 20, 2021
Rongyi Sun, Borun Chen, Qingyu Zhou, Yinghui Li, YunBo Cao, Hai-Tao Zheng

Existing text- and image-based multimodal dialogue systems use the traditional Hierarchical Recurrent Encoder-Decoder (HRED) framework, which has an utterance-level encoder to model utterance representation and a context-level encoder to model context representation. Although pioneer efforts have shown promising performances, they still suffer from the following challenges: (1) the interaction between textual features and visual features is not fine-grained enough. (2) the context representation can not provide a complete representation for the context. To address the issues mentioned above, we propose a non-hierarchical attention network with modality dropout, which abandons the HRED framework and utilizes attention modules to encode each utterance and model the context representation. To evaluate our proposed model, we conduct comprehensive experiments on a public multimodal dialogue dataset. Automatic and human evaluation demonstrate that our proposed model outperforms the existing methods and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

* Submitted to ICASSP2022 (currently under review) 

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Neural Medication Extraction: A Comparison of Recent Models in Supervised and Semi-supervised Learning Settings

Oct 19, 2021
Ali Can Kocabiyikoglu, François Portet, Raheel Qader, Jean-Marc Babouchkine

Drug prescriptions are essential information that must be encoded in electronic medical records. However, much of this information is hidden within free-text reports. This is why the medication extraction task has emerged. To date, most of the research effort has focused on small amount of data and has only recently considered deep learning methods. In this paper, we present an independent and comprehensive evaluation of state-of-the-art neural architectures on the I2B2 medical prescription extraction task both in the supervised and semi-supervised settings. The study shows the very competitive performance of simple DNN models on the task as well as the high interest of pre-trained models. Adapting the latter models on the I2B2 dataset enables to push medication extraction performances above the state-of-the-art. Finally, the study also confirms that semi-supervised techniques are promising to leverage large amounts of unlabeled data in particular in low resource setting when labeled data is too costly to acquire.

* IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics (ICHI 2021) 

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