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Conversation Generation with Concept Flow

Nov 07, 2019
Houyu Zhang, Zhenghao Liu, Chenyan Xiong, Zhiyuan Liu

Human conversations naturally evolve around related entities and connected concepts, while may also shift from topic to topic. This paper presents ConceptFlow, which leverages commonsense knowledge graphs to explicitly model such conversation flows for better conversation response generation. ConceptFlow grounds the conversation inputs to the latent concept space and represents the potential conversation flow as a concept flow along the commonsense relations. The concept is guided by a graph attention mechanism that models the possibility of the conversation evolving towards different concepts. The conversation response is then decoded using the encodings of both utterance texts and concept flows, integrating the learned conversation structure in the concept space. Our experiments on Reddit conversations demonstrate the advantage of ConceptFlow over previous commonsense aware dialog models and fine-tuned GPT-2 models, while using much fewer parameters but with explicit modeling of conversation structures.

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Generalized Clustering by Learning to Optimize Expected Normalized Cuts

Oct 16, 2019
Azade Nazi, Will Hang, Anna Goldie, Sujith Ravi, Azalia Mirhoseini

We introduce a novel end-to-end approach for learning to cluster in the absence of labeled examples. Our clustering objective is based on optimizing normalized cuts, a criterion which measures both intra-cluster similarity as well as inter-cluster dissimilarity. We define a differentiable loss function equivalent to the expected normalized cuts. Unlike much of the work in unsupervised deep learning, our trained model directly outputs final cluster assignments, rather than embeddings that need further processing to be usable. Our approach generalizes to unseen datasets across a wide variety of domains, including text, and image. Specifically, we achieve state-of-the-art results on popular unsupervised clustering benchmarks (e.g., MNIST, Reuters, CIFAR-10, and CIFAR-100), outperforming the strongest baselines by up to 10.9%. Our generalization results are superior (by up to 21.9%) to the recent top-performing clustering approach with the ability to generalize.

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TexTrolls: Identifying Russian Trolls on Twitter from a Textual Perspective

Oct 03, 2019
Bilal Ghanem, Davide Buscaldi, Paolo Rosso

The online new emerging suspicious users, that usually are called trolls, are one of the main sources of hate, fake, and deceptive online messages. Some agendas are utilizing these harmful users to spread incitement tweets, and as a consequence, the audience get deceived. The challenge in detecting such accounts is that they conceal their identities which make them disguised in social media, adding more difficulty to identify them using just their social network information. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a text-based approach to detect the online trolls such as those that were discovered during the US 2016 presidential elections. Our approach is mainly based on textual features which utilize thematic information, and profiling features to identify the accounts from their way of writing tweets. We deduced the thematic information in a unsupervised way and we show that coupling them with the textual features enhanced the performance of the proposed model. In addition, we find that the proposed profiling features perform the best comparing to the textual features.

* 15 pages 

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Robust Navigation with Language Pretraining and Stochastic Sampling

Sep 05, 2019
Xiujun Li, Chunyuan Li, Qiaolin Xia, Yonatan Bisk, Asli Celikyilmaz, Jianfeng Gao, Noah Smith, Yejin Choi

Core to the vision-and-language navigation (VLN) challenge is building robust instruction representations and action decoding schemes, which can generalize well to previously unseen instructions and environments. In this paper, we report two simple but highly effective methods to address these challenges and lead to a new state-of-the-art performance. First, we adapt large-scale pretrained language models to learn text representations that generalize better to previously unseen instructions. Second, we propose a stochastic sampling scheme to reduce the considerable gap between the expert actions in training and sampled actions in test, so that the agent can learn to correct its own mistakes during long sequential action decoding. Combining the two techniques, we achieve a new state of the art on the Room-to-Room benchmark with 6% absolute gain over the previous best result (47% -> 53%) on the Success Rate weighted by Path Length metric.

* 8 pages, 4 figures, EMNLP 2019 

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SG-Net: Syntax-Guided Machine Reading Comprehension

Sep 03, 2019
Zhuosheng Zhang, Yuwei Wu, Junru Zhou, Sufeng Duan, Hai Zhao, Rui Wang

For machine reading comprehension, the capacity of effectively modeling the linguistic knowledge from the detail-riddled and lengthy passages and getting ride of the noises is essential to improve its performance. Traditional attentive models attend to all words without explicit constraint, which results in inaccurate concentration on some dispensable words. In this work, we propose using syntax to guide the text modeling of both passages and questions by incorporating explicit syntactic constraints into attention mechanism for better linguistically motivated word representations. To serve such a purpose, we propose a novel dual contextual architecture called syntax-guided network (SG-Net), which consists of a BERT context vector and a syntax-guided context vector, to provide more fine-grained representation. Extensive experiments on popular benchmarks including SQuAD 2.0 and RACE show that the proposed approach achieves a substantial and significant improvement over the fine-tuned BERT baseline.

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Classifying the reported ability in clinical mobility descriptions

Jun 07, 2019
Denis Newman-Griffis, Ayah Zirikly, Guy Divita, Bart Desmet

Assessing how individuals perform different activities is key information for modeling health states of individuals and populations. Descriptions of activity performance in clinical free text are complex, including syntactic negation and similarities to textual entailment tasks. We explore a variety of methods for the novel task of classifying four types of assertions about activity performance: Able, Unable, Unclear, and None (no information). We find that ensembling an SVM trained with lexical features and a CNN achieves 77.9% macro F1 score on our task, and yields nearly 80% recall on the rare Unclear and Unable samples. Finally, we highlight several challenges in classifying performance assertions, including capturing information about sources of assistance, incorporating syntactic structure and negation scope, and handling new modalities at test time. Our findings establish a strong baseline for this novel task, and identify intriguing areas for further research.

* Appearing in BioNLP 2019. 10 pages; 6 tables, 2 figures 

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The Language of Dialogue Is Complex

Jun 05, 2019
Alexander Robertson, Luca Maria Aiello, Daniele Quercia

Integrative Complexity (IC) is a psychometric that measures the ability of a person to recognize multiple perspectives and connect them, thus identifying paths for conflict resolution. IC has been linked to a wide variety of political, social and personal outcomes but evaluating it is a time-consuming process requiring skilled professionals to manually score texts, a fact which accounts for the limited exploration of IC at scale on social media.We combine natural language processing and machine learning to train an IC classification model that achieves state-of-the-art performance on unseen data and more closely adheres to the established structure of the IC coding process than previous automated approaches. When applied to the content of 400k+ comments from online fora about depression and knowledge exchange, our model was capable of replicating key findings of prior work, thus providing the first example of using IC tools for large-scale social media analytics.

* In proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM). Munich, 2019 
* 12 pages, 9 figures, 10 tables 

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Cooperative neural networks (CoNN): Exploiting prior independence structure for improved classification

Jun 01, 2019
Harsh Shrivastava, Eugene Bart, Bob Price, Hanjun Dai, Bo Dai, Srinivas Aluru

We propose a new approach, called cooperative neural networks (CoNN), which uses a set of cooperatively trained neural networks to capture latent representations that exploit prior given independence structure. The model is more flexible than traditional graphical models based on exponential family distributions, but incorporates more domain specific prior structure than traditional deep networks or variational autoencoders. The framework is very general and can be used to exploit the independence structure of any graphical model. We illustrate the technique by showing that we can transfer the independence structure of the popular Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model to a cooperative neural network, CoNN-sLDA. Empirical evaluation of CoNN-sLDA on supervised text classification tasks demonstrates that the theoretical advantages of prior independence structure can be realized in practice -we demonstrate a 23\% reduction in error on the challenging MultiSent data set compared to state-of-the-art.

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Learning Cross-lingual Embeddings from Twitter via Distant Supervision

May 17, 2019
Jose Camacho-Collados, Yerai Doval, Eugenio Martínez-Cámara, Luis Espinosa-Anke, Francesco Barbieri, Steven Schockaert

Cross-lingual embeddings represent the meaning of words from different languages in the same vector space. Recent work has shown that it is possible to construct such representations by aligning independently learned monolingual embedding spaces, and that accurate alignments can be obtained even without external bilingual data. In this paper we explore a research direction which has been surprisingly neglected in the literature: leveraging noisy user-generated text to learn cross-lingual embeddings particularly tailored towards social media applications. While the noisiness and informal nature of the social media genre poses additional challenges to cross-lingual embedding methods, we find that it also provides key opportunities due to the abundance of code-switching and the existence of a shared vocabulary of emoji and named entities. Our contribution consists in a very simple post-processing step that exploits these phenomena to significantly improve the performance of state-of-the-art alignment methods.

* 11 pages, 5 tables, 1 figure, 1 appendix 

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Comparing of Term Clustering Frameworks for Modular Ontology Learning

Jan 25, 2019
Ziwei Xu, Mounira Harzallah, Fabrice Guillet

This paper aims to use term clustering to build a modular ontology according to core ontology from domain-specific text. The acquisition of semantic knowledge focuses on noun phrase appearing with the same syntactic roles in relation to a verb or its preposition combination in a sentence. The construction of this co-occurrence matrix from context helps to build feature space of noun phrases, which is then transformed to several encoding representations including feature selection and dimensionality reduction. In addition, the content has also been presented with the construction of word vectors. These representations are clustered respectively with K-Means and Affinity Propagation (AP) methods, which differentiate into the term clustering frameworks. Due to the randomness of K-Means, iteration efforts are adopted to find the optimal parameter. The frameworks are evaluated extensively where AP shows dominant effectiveness for co-occurred terms and NMF encoding technique is salient by its promising facilities in feature compression.

* 10th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, Sep 2018, Seville, Spain. SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications; SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications, pp.128-135, 2018, Proceedings of the 10th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management - Volume 2: KEOD 

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