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On Linear Identifiability of Learned Representations

Jul 08, 2020
Geoffrey Roeder, Luke Metz, Diederik P. Kingma

Identifiability is a desirable property of a statistical model: it implies that the true model parameters may be estimated to any desired precision, given sufficient computational resources and data. We study identifiability in the context of representation learning: discovering nonlinear data representations that are optimal with respect to some downstream task. When parameterized as deep neural networks, such representation functions typically lack identifiability in parameter space, because they are overparameterized by design. In this paper, building on recent advances in nonlinear ICA, we aim to rehabilitate identifiability by showing that a large family of discriminative models are in fact identifiable in function space, up to a linear indeterminacy. Many models for representation learning in a wide variety of domains have been identifiable in this sense, including text, images and audio, state-of-the-art at time of publication. We derive sufficient conditions for linear identifiability and provide empirical support for the result on both simulated and real-world data.


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Interpretable Sequence Classification Via Prototype Trajectory

Jul 03, 2020
Dat Hong, Stephen S. Baek, Tong Wang

We propose a novel interpretable recurrent neural network (RNN) model, called ProtoryNet, in which we introduce a new concept of prototype trajectories. Motivated by the prototype theory in modern linguistics, ProtoryNet makes a prediction by finding the most similar prototype for each sentence in a text sequence and feeding an RNN backbone with the proximity of each of the sentences to the prototypes. The RNN backbone then captures the temporal pattern of the prototypes, to which we refer as prototype trajectories. The prototype trajectories enable intuitive, fine-grained interpretation of how the model reached to the final prediction, resembling the process of how humans analyze paragraphs. Experiments conducted on multiple public data sets reveal that the proposed method not only is more interpretable but also is more accurate than the current state-of-the-art prototype-based method. Furthermore, we report a survey result indicating that human users find ProtoryNet more intuitive and easier to understand, compared to the other prototype-based methods.


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Clinical Predictive Keyboard using Statistical and Neural Language Modeling

Jun 22, 2020
John Pavlopoulos, Panagiotis Papapetrou

A language model can be used to predict the next word during authoring, to correct spelling or to accelerate writing (e.g., in sms or emails). Language models, however, have only been applied in a very small scale to assist physicians during authoring (e.g., discharge summaries or radiology reports). But along with the assistance to the physician, computer-based systems which expedite the patient's exit also assist in decreasing the hospital infections. We employed statistical and neural language modeling to predict the next word of a clinical text and assess all the models in terms of accuracy and keystroke discount in two datasets with radiology reports. We show that a neural language model can achieve as high as 51.3% accuracy in radiology reports (one out of two words predicted correctly). We also show that even when the models are employed only for frequent words, the physician can save valuable time.

* To appear in CBMS'20 

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Catching Attention with Automatic Pull Quote Selection

May 27, 2020
Tanner Bohn, Charles X. Ling

Pull quotes are an effective component of a captivating news article. These spans of text are selected from an article and provided with more salient presentation, with the aim of attracting readers with intriguing phrases and making the article more visually interesting. In this paper, we introduce the novel task of automatic pull quote selection, construct a dataset, and benchmark the performance of a number of approaches ranging from hand-crafted features to state-of-the-art sentence embeddings to cross-task models. We show that pre-trained Sentence-BERT embeddings outperform all other approaches, however the benefit over n-gram models is marginal. By closely examining the results of simple models, we also uncover many unexpected properties of pull quotes that should serve as inspiration for future approaches. We believe the benefits of exploring this problem further are clear: pull quotes have been found to increase enjoyment and readability, shape reader perceptions, and facilitate learning.

* 14 pages (11 + 3 for refs), 3 figures, 6 tables 

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Pairwise Supervised Hashing with Bernoulli Variational Auto-Encoder and Self-Control Gradient Estimator

May 21, 2020
Siamak Zamani Dadaneh, Shahin Boluki, Mingzhang Yin, Mingyuan Zhou, Xiaoning Qian

Semantic hashing has become a crucial component of fast similarity search in many large-scale information retrieval systems, in particular, for text data. Variational auto-encoders (VAEs) with binary latent variables as hashing codes provide state-of-the-art performance in terms of precision for document retrieval. We propose a pairwise loss function with discrete latent VAE to reward within-class similarity and between-class dissimilarity for supervised hashing. Instead of solving the optimization relying on existing biased gradient estimators, an unbiased low-variance gradient estimator is adopted to optimize the hashing function by evaluating the non-differentiable loss function over two correlated sets of binary hashing codes to control the variance of gradient estimates. This new semantic hashing framework achieves superior performance compared to the state-of-the-arts, as demonstrated by our comprehensive experiments.

* Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence Conference (UAI) 2020 
* To appear in UAI 2020 

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Semantic Photo Manipulation with a Generative Image Prior

May 15, 2020
David Bau, Hendrik Strobelt, William Peebles, Jonas, Bolei Zhou, Jun-Yan Zhu, Antonio Torralba

Despite the recent success of GANs in synthesizing images conditioned on inputs such as a user sketch, text, or semantic labels, manipulating the high-level attributes of an existing natural photograph with GANs is challenging for two reasons. First, it is hard for GANs to precisely reproduce an input image. Second, after manipulation, the newly synthesized pixels often do not fit the original image. In this paper, we address these issues by adapting the image prior learned by GANs to image statistics of an individual image. Our method can accurately reconstruct the input image and synthesize new content, consistent with the appearance of the input image. We demonstrate our interactive system on several semantic image editing tasks, including synthesizing new objects consistent with background, removing unwanted objects, and changing the appearance of an object. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons against several existing methods demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

* Bau, David, et al. "Semantic photo manipulation with a generative image prior." ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 38.4 (2019) 
* SIGGRAPH 2019 

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Building a Manga Dataset "Manga109" with Annotations for Multimedia Applications

May 12, 2020
Kiyoharu Aizawa, Azuma Fujimoto, Atsushi Otsubo, Toru Ogawa, Yusuke Matsui, Koki Tsubota, Hikaru Ikuta

Manga, or comics, which are a type of multimodal artwork, have been left behind in the recent trend of deep learning applications because of the lack of a proper dataset. Hence, we built Manga109, a dataset consisting of a variety of 109 Japanese comic books (94 authors and 21,142 pages) and made it publicly available by obtaining author permissions for academic use. We carefully annotated the frames, speech texts, character faces, and character bodies; the total number of annotations exceeds 500k. This dataset provides numerous manga images and annotations, which will be beneficial for use in machine learning algorithms and their evaluation. In addition to academic use, we obtained further permission for a subset of the dataset for industrial use. In this article, we describe the details of the dataset and present a few examples of multimedia processing applications (detection, retrieval, and generation) that apply existing deep learning methods and are made possible by the dataset.

* IEEE MultiMedia 2020 
* 10 pages, 8 figures 

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Leveraging the Inherent Hierarchy of Vacancy Titles for Automated Job Ontology Expansion

Apr 06, 2020
Jeroen Van Hautte, Vincent Schelstraete, Mikaël Wornoo

Machine learning plays an ever-bigger part in online recruitment, powering intelligent matchmaking and job recommendations across many of the world's largest job platforms. However, the main text is rarely enough to fully understand a job posting: more often than not, much of the required information is condensed into the job title. Several organised efforts have been made to map job titles onto a hand-made knowledge base as to provide this information, but these only cover around 60\% of online vacancies. We introduce a novel, purely data-driven approach towards the detection of new job titles. Our method is conceptually simple, extremely efficient and competitive with traditional NER-based approaches. Although the standalone application of our method does not outperform a finetuned BERT model, it can be applied as a preprocessing step as well, substantially boosting accuracy across several architectures.

* Accepted to the Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Computational Terminology (COMPUTERM 2020) 

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MULTEXT-East

Mar 31, 2020
Tomaž Erjavec

MULTEXT-East language resources, a multilingual dataset for language engineering research, focused on the morphosyntactic level of linguistic description. The MULTEXT-East dataset includes the EAGLES-based morphosyntactic specifications, morphosyntactic lexicons, and an annotated multilingual corpora. The parallel corpus, the novel "1984" by George Orwell, is sentence aligned and contains hand-validated morphosyntactic descriptions and lemmas. The resources are uniformly encoded in XML, using the Text Encoding Initiative Guidelines, TEI P5, and cover 16 languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, English, Estonian, Hungarian, Macedonian, Persian, Polish, Resian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, and Ukrainian. This dataset is extensively documented, and freely available for research purposes. This case study gives a history of the development of the MULTEXT-East resources, presents their encoding and components, discusses related work and gives some conclusions.

* Published in: Nancy Ide, James Pustejovsky, eds. 2007. Handbook of linguistic annotation. pp. 441-462. Springer 

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